Chesapeake Bay Introduced Species Database

Diadumene lineata

Common name(s):
Striped Sea Anemone
The Striped Sea Anemone is native to Japan but has been introduced to many parts of the world including Chesapeake Bay. This beautiful anemone is highly variable in size, color, temperature adaptation, feeding cues, and mode of reproduction, which may have contributed to its ability to rapidly colonized new areas. It grows on many surfaces like docks, oyster reefs, marsh grasses, and the bottom of boats. It was likely transported to the Chesapeake Bay on the bottom of a boat in the late 1920s. It has since spread throughout the southern bay where it is now a common resident of the fouling community. While it is common, it doesn't dominate the fouling community or cause any significant economic impacts.
Image courtesy of Jim Sidie, Ursinus College.

Chesapeake Bay Status:

First Record
Regular Resident

Source Region
Native Region
Western Atlantic Western Pacific

Vector(s) of Introduction
Shipping(Fouling Community)

History of Spread:

Diadumene lineata (Striped Sea Anemone) is believed to be native to the Pacific Coast of Northeastern Asia including Japan and possibly Hong Kong (where it was described by Verrill in 1870) (Uchida 1932; Stephenson 1935). It was introduced to the Pacific coast of North America (San Francisco Bay) by 1906, and reached Vancouver Island British Columbia by 1909 (Stephenson 1935). However, it was not collected in Puget Sound until 1939 (Cohen et al. 1998). Diadumene lineata was first collected in Europe at Plymouth, England and found in the Helder, Netherlands (1913), Naples, Mediterranean (1911) and reached the Suez Canal by 1924 (Stephenson 1935). Around the world, it has recently been found in New Zealand (1983, (Cranfield et al. 1998), the Hawaiian Islands (2000, Zabin et al. 2004), and Argentina (2005, Molina et al. 2008). On the Atlantic coast of North America, it was first found in Long Island Sound at New Haven CT in 1892 (Verrill 1898).

Atlantic North American first records are summarized below from north to south:

Gulf of Maine- Diadumene lineata was first reported from the Gulf in Massachusetts Bay, at Nahant MA in 1899, and then in Salem Ma (Parker 1902). Shick reported it as occurring on the 'entire Maine Coast' before 1975. However, a population at Blue Hill Falls ME, on the basis of morphological features, appears to be a separate introduction, possibly brought with an unsuccesful planting of Japanese oysters in 1949.

Buzzards Bay-Vineyard Sound- Diadumene lineata was first collected in Woods Hole MA in 1898 (Verrill 1898), and was abundant by 1902 (Parker 1902).

Narragansett Bay-Rhode Island Sound- Diadumene lineata was first collected in Newport RI in 1895, and was abundant at that time (Parker 1902).

Long Island Sound- Diadumene lineata was first collected in New Haven CT in 1892 and described as 'H. luciae'. It had become much more abundant by 1898 (Verrill 1898).

Hudson River Estuary-New York Bight- The earliest record of which we are aware is from the Hudson River estuary in 1972 (Ristich et al. 1977), though it was doubtless introduced much earlier.

NJ Coastal Bays- Diadumene lineata was reported as common in Barnegat Bay by Richards (1938).

Chesapeake Bay- Diadumene lineata was first collected at Cape Charles VA in 1929 (Richards 1931).

NC Sounds- Diadumene lineata was first collected at Beaufort NC in 1929; and was not found in 1900-1904 surveys (Pearse 1936, Field 1949).

South Carolina- Diadumene lineata was reported from 'most inshore areas' by Calder and Hester (1978).

Gulf of Mexico- Diadumene lineata was first collected at Port Arkansas TX in 1948 (Carlgren and Hedgepeth 1953), and subsequently found at Turkey Point FL (Minasian and Mariscal 1979).

Diadumene lineata, as 'Segartia luciae', was found in a survey of fouling organisms on commercial and naval ships, 1923-24 at ports from Boston to Norfolk (Visscher 1927). It was reported from a ship 'Leviathan' crusing between Newport News, VA and New York, and 2 other East Coast ships (Visscher 1927). Other Chesapeake Bay records are listed:

Cape Charles VA- Diadumene lineata was found on 'on the numerous rock jetties' in 1929 (Richards 1931). It was generally common on the lower Eastern Shore of Chesapeake Bay (VA), in 1994-95 (Ruiz et al. unpublished data).

Hampton Roads- Diadumene lineata was common by 1949 (Ferguson and Jones 1949), and common on pier at Norfolk Navy Base (Calder and Brehmer 1967).

Lynnhaven Bay- Diadumene lineata was common in 1994 and 1995 (Ruiz et al. unpublished data).

Lower Bay - In 1929, H. lineata was found 'on the numerous rock jetties near the town of Cape Charles' (Richards 1931).

Lower York River- Davis (1937), whose Davis' address was at William and Mary, apparently collected D. lineata in the Chesapeake Bay and gave the range given simply as 'MA to VA'. D. lineata has been frequently collected at Gloucester Point, VA, 1963-1969 (Andrews 1973; Calder 1972; Sassaman and Mangum 1970). D.lineata was apparently absent or much rarer than Diadumene leucolena on dock pilings at Gloucester Point after the tropical storm 'Agnes' floods in 1972 (Andrews 1973), but it was common in 1994-95 (Ruiz et al. unpublished data).

Patuxent River- Diadumene lineata was collected from a deep basin (38 m) at the mouth of the estuary, in water of 19 ppt salinity (Merrill and Boss 1966).

Andrews (1953) said that this species was found 'through the salinity range of Chesapeake Bay', but other sources (e.g. Calder 1972; Lippson and Lippson 1984) indicate that this species is confined to the lower Bay and mesohaline waters. It was not found on settling plates in the Upper Bay in 1994-95 (Ruiz et al. unpublished data).

History References - Andrews 1953; Andrews 1973; Calder 1972; Calder and Brehmer 1967; Carlgren and Hedgepeth 1953; Davis 1937; Ferguson and Jones 1949; Field 1949; Lippson and Lippson 1984; Merrill and Boss 1966; Parker 1902; Pearse 1936; Richards 1931; Sassaman and Mangum 1970; Shick 1976; Stephenson 1935; Uchida 1932; Verrill 1898; Visscher 1927

Invasion Comments:

Vector(s) of Introduction- Some introductions of D. lineata into North American waters have probably resulted from transplants of Crassostrea gigas (Pacfic Oyster) (Shick 1976). However, no transplants are known in Chesapeake Bay in the early 20th century, when this anemone was introduced

This data was last modified on Friday, October 2nd, 2009.
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