Chesapeake Bay Introduced Species Database


Crassostrea gigas

Common name(s):
Pacific Oyster
The Pacific Oyster is native to the Indo-West Pacific and is the most widely transplanted shellfish in the world, introduced to at least 42 countries. Incredibly there are no established populations in western Atlantic waters, in spite of illegal or unofficial introductions in Atlantic waters near Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay. But the introduction of Pacific Oysters was considered as a possible means of replacing or supplementing native stocks of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which has been devastated by disease and overharvest. Both the Pacific Oyster and the Chinese River Oyster (C. ariakensis) were investigated for possible introduction until 1998 following research in the Bay, which including the stocking of sterile oysters. But initial studies found that the Chinese River Oyster had better growth and survival under East Coast conditions than the Pacific Oyster, and so further research and political interest shifted to the Chinese River Oyster. Ironically, early plantings of the Pacific Oyster in the 1950s in Delaware Bay are one of the possible means of introduction of MSX (Haplosporidium nelsoni), one of the diseases that lead to the decline of Eastern Oysters. The Pacific Oyster was, however, successfully introduced to Puget Sound WA in 1902 to replace the Olympic Oyster (Ostreola conchaphila), which was devastated by overfishing.
Image courtesy of Paul Fofonoff.

References:

Andrews, Jay D. (1979) Oyster diseases in Chesapeake Bay, Marine Fisheries Review 41: 45-53
 
Andrews, Jay D. (1980) A review of introductions of exotic oysters and biological planning for new importations, Marine Fisheries Review 42: 1-11
 
Baker, Beth (1992) Botcher of the bay or economic boon?, BioScience 42: 744-747
 
Barber, Bruce J. (1996) Gametogenesis of Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791), and Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) in disease-endemic lower Chesapeake Bay, Journal of Shellfish Research 15: 285-290
 
Barber, Bruce J.; Mann, Roger (1994) Growth and mortality of Eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin 1871) and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg 1793) under challenge from the parasite Perkinsus marinus, Journal of Shellfish Research 13: 109-114
 
Burreson, E.M.; Stokes, N.A.; Friedman, C.S. (2000) Increased virulence in an introduced pathogen: Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) in the Eastern Oyster Crassostrea virginica., Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 12: 1-8
 
Calvo, Gustavo; Luckenbach, Mark W.; Allen, Standish K.; Burreson, Eugene M. (1999) Comparative field study of Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin 1791) in relation to salinity in Virginia., Journal of Shellfish Research 18: 465-473
 
Carlton, James T. (1992) Introduced marine and estuarine mollusks of North America: An end-of-the-20th-century perspective., Journal of Shellfish Research 11: 489-505
 
Chu, Fu-Lin E. (1996) Laboratory investigations of susceptibilty, infectivity, and transmission of Perkinsus marinus in oysters, Journal of Shellfish Research 15: 57-66
 
Chu, Fu-Lin E.; Volety, Aswani K.; Constantin, Gegorgeta (1996) A comparison of Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea virginica: Effects of temperature and salinity on susceptibility to the protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, Journal of Shellfish Research 15: 375-380
 
Debrosse, Gregory A.; Allen, Standish K., Jr. (1996) Suitability of land-based evaluations of Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) as an indicator of performance in the field, Journal of Shellfish Research 15: 291-295
 
Douillet, Philippe; Langdon, Christopher J. (1993) Effects of marine bacteria on the culture of axenic oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) larvae, Biological Bulletin 184: 36-54
 
Friedman, Carolyn S. (1996) Haplosporidian infections of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg), in California and Japan, Journal of Shellfish Research 15: 597-600
 
Gaffney, Patrick M.; Allen, Standish K., Jr. (1992) Genetic aspects of introduction and transfer of molluscs, Journal of Shellfish Research 11: 535-538
 
Galtsoff, Paul S. (1932) Introduction of Japanese Oysters into the United States, United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Fisheries, Fisheries Circular 12: 1-16
 
Gerdes, D. (1983) Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas Part I. Feeding behaviour of larvae and adults, Aquaculture 31: 195-219
 
Gottlieb, Sara J.; Schweighofer, Mona E. (1996) Oysters and the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem: a case for exotic species introduction to improve environmental quality?, Estuaries 19: 639-650
 
Grizel, H; Héral, M (1991) Introduction into France of the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas)., Journal Conseil Internationale d' Exploration de la Mer 47: 399-403
 
His, E.; Robert, R.; Dinet, A. (1989) Combined effects of temperature and salinity on fed and starved larvae of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas, Marine Biology 100: 455-463
 
Katkansky, Stanley C.; Warner, Ronald W. (1970) Sporulation of a haplosporidan in a Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in Humboldt Bay, California, Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 27: 1320-1321
 
Kavanaugh, L. D. (1941) Reactions of American and imported oysters to an annelid worm, Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 16: 354
 
Kern, Fred G. (1976) Minchinia nelsoni(MSX) disease of the American oyster, Marine Fisheries Review 38: 22-24
 
Kern, Frederick G. (1976) Sporulation of Minchinia sp. (Haplosporida, Haplosporidiidae) in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) from the Republic of Korea, Journal of Protozoology 23: 478-500
 
Lapegue, Sylvie; Batista,Frederico M.; Heurtebise, Serge; Yu, Ziniu; Boudry, Pierre (2004) Evidence for the presence of the Portuguese oyster, Crassostrea angulata, in Northern China., Journal of Shellfish Research 23: 759-763
 
Lipton, Douglas W.; Lavan, Eileen F.; Strand, Ivar E. (1992) Economics of molluscan introductions and transfers: the Chesapeake example, Journal of Shellfish Research 11: 511-519
 
Lipton, Douglas; Lavan, Eileen F.; Strand, Ivar E. (1992) Economics of molluscan introductions and transfers: the Chesapeake Bay dilemma, Journal of Shellfish Research 11: 511-519
 
Mann, Roger; Burreson, Eugene M. (1994) Growth of triploid Crassostrea gigas under natural conditions in the lower Chesapeake Bay, Journal of Shellfish Research 13: 279
 
Mann, Roger; Burreson, Eugene M.; Baker, Patrick K. (1991) The decline of the Virginia oyster fishery in Chesapeake Bay: Considerations for introduction of a non-endemic species, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793), Journal of Shellfish Research 10: 379-388
 
Nell, John A.; Holliday, John E. (1988) Effects of salinity on the growth and survival of Sydney Rock oyster (Saccostrea commercialis) and Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae and spat, Aquaculture 68: 39-44
 
Ó'Foighil, D.; Gaffeny, P. M.; Wilbur, A. E.; Hilbish, T J. (1998) Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences support an Asian origin for the Portuguese oyster Crassostrea angulata, Marine Biology 131: 497-503
 
Ó'Foighil, Diarmid; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Hilbish, Thomas J. (1995) Differences in mitochondrial 16S ribosomal gene sequences allow discrimination among American [Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin)] and Asian [ C. gigas (Thinberg), C. ariakensis Wakiya] oyster species, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 192: 211-220
 
Quayle, D. B. (1969) Pacific oyster culture in British Columbia, Canadian Fisheries Research Board Bulletin 169: 1-192
 
Shpigel, Muki; Barber, Bruce J.; Mann, Roger (1992) Effects of elevated temperature on growth, gametogenesis, physiology, and biochemical composition in diploid and triploid Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg., Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 161: 15-25
 


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