Chesapeake Bay Introduced Species Database

Phragmites australis

Common name(s):
Common Reed
Image courtesy of Hitchcock and Chase 1950, U.S. Department of Agriculture.


Able, Kenneth W.; Hagan,Stacy, M. (2000) Effects of common reed (Phragmites australis) invasion on marsh surface macrofauna: response of fishes and decapod crustaceans., Estuaries 23: 633-646
Aikin, W. E. A. (1837) Catalogue of phenogamous plants and ferns, native or naturalized, growing in the vicinity of Baltimore, Maryland., Transactions of the Maryland Academy of Sciences and Literature 1: 55-91
Angradi, T.R.; Hagan, S. M.; Able, K. W. (2001) Vegetation type and the intertidal macroinvertebrate fauna of the brackish marsh: Phragmites vs. Spartina., Wetlands 21: 75-92
Baldwin, Andrew H.; Kettenring, Karin M.; Whigham, Dennis F. (2011) Seed banks of Phragmites australis-dominated brackish wetlands: Relationships to seed viability, inundation, and land cover, Aquatic Botany 93: 163-169
Bart, David; Hartman, Jean Marie (2000) Environmental determinants of Phragmites australis expansion in a New Jersey salt marsh: an experimental approach, Oikos 89: 59-69
Beaven, George F.; Oostng, Henry J. (1939) Pocomoke Swamp: a study of a cypress swamp on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, Bulletn of the Torrey Botanical Club :
Bertness, Mark D., Ewanchuk, Patrick J. & Silliman, B. R. (2002) Anthropogenic modification of New England salt marsh landscapes, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences 99: 1395-1398
Brown, Melvin L.; Reveal, J. L; Broome, C. R.; Frick, George F. (1987) Comments on the vegetation of colonial Maryland, Huntia 7: 247-283
Burdick, David M.; Konisky, Raymond A. (2003) Determinants of expansion for Phragmites australis, common reed, in natural and impacted coastal marshes., Estuaries 26: 407-416
Burk, Isaac (1877) List of plants recently collected on ships' ballast in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia : 105-109
Chambers, Randolph M., Mozdzer, Thomas J., Ambrose, Joelle C. (1998) Effects of salinity and sulfide on the distribution of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora in a tidal saltmarsh, Aquatic Botany 62: 161-169
Chambers, Randolph M.; Havens, Kirk J.; Killeen, Sharon; Berman, Marcia (2008) Common reed Phragmites australis occurrence and adjacent land use along estuarine shoreline in Chesapeake Bay., Wetlands 28: 1097-1103
Chambers, Randolph M.; Meyerson, Laura A.; Saltonstall, Kristen (1999) Expansion of Phragmites australis into tidal wetlands of North America, Aquatic Botany 64: 261-273
Erlanson, Eileen (1924) The flora of the Peninsula of Virginia, Papers of the Michigan Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 4: 115-182
Fell, Paul E.; Weissbach, Sonja P.; Jones, Douglas A.; Fallon, Mark A.; Zeppieri, Julie A.; Faison, Edward K.; Lennon, Kristen A.; Newberry, Kate J., (1998) Does invasion of oligohaline tidal marshes by reed grass, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud., affect the availability of prey resources for the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus L.?, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 222: 59-77
Flowers, Margaret G. (1973) Vegetational zonation in two successional brackish marshes of Chesapeake Bay, Chesapeake Science 14: 197-200
Gervais, C., Trahan; R., Moreno, D.; Drolet, A.-M. (1993) Le Phragmites australis in Québec: distribution géographique, nombres chromosomiques et reproduction, Canadian Journal of Botany 71: 1386-1393
Guo, Wen-Yong; Lambertini, Carla; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Meyerson, Laura A.; Brix, Hans (2013) Invasion of Old World Phragmites australis in the New World: precipitation and temperature patterns combined with human influences redesign the invasive niche, Global Change Biology 19: 3406-3422
Haslam, S. M. (1972) Biological flora of the British Isles List Br. Vasc. Pl. (1958) No. 665, . 1. Phragmites communis, Journal of Ecology 60: 585-610
Haslam, Sylvia M. (1971) The development and establishment of young plants of Phragmites communis Trin., Annals of Botany 35: 1059-1072
Hauber, Donald P.; White, David A.; Powers, Sean P.; De Francesch, Fred R. (1991) Isozyme variation and correspondence with unusual infrared reflectance patterns in Phragmites australis (Poaceae), Plant Systematics and Evolution 178: 1-8
Havens, Kirk J.; Priest, Walter I. III; Berquist, Harry (1997) Investigation and long-term monitoring of Phragmites australis within Virginia's constructed wetland sites., Environmental Management 21: 599-605
Hellings, Samuel E.; Gallagher, John L. (1992) The effect of salinity and flooding on Phragmites australis., Journal of Applied Ecology 29: 41-49
Hendricks, Lindsey G.; Mossop, Hannah E.; Kicklighter, Cynthia E. (2011) Palatability and chemical defense of Phragmites australis to the Marsh Periwinkle snail Littoraria irrorata, Journal of Chemical Ecology 37: 838-845
Holdredge, Christine; Bertness, Mark D. (2011) Litter legacy increases the competitive advantage of invasive Phragmites australis in New England wetlands, Biological Invasions 13: 423-433
Holt, Eric R.; Buchsbaum, Robert (2000) Bird Use of Phragmites australis in Coastal Marshes of Northern Massachusetts, MIT Sea Grant, Cambridge MA. Pp. 232-240
Hunter, Karen L.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Brown, Lori M.; Able, Kenneth W. (2006) Responses of resident marsh fishes to stages of Phragmites australis invasion in three Mid-Atlantic estuaries, Estuaries and Coasts 29: 487-498
Kettenring, Karin M.; McCormick, Melissa K.; Baron, Heather M.; Whigham, Dennis F. (2010) Phragmites australis (Common Reed) invasion in the Rhode River subestuary of the Chesapeake Bay: disentangling the effects of foliar nutrients, genetic diversity, patch size, and seed viability, Estuaries and Coasts 33: 118-126
Kimball, Matthew E.; Able, Kenneth W. (2007) Nekton utilization of intertidal salt marsh creeks: Tidal influences in natural Spartina, invasive Phragmites, and marshes treated for Phragmites removal., Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 346: 87-101
Lambertini, C. and 5 authors (2006) A phylogeographic study of the cosmopolitan genus Phragmites (Poaceae) based on AFLPs, Plant Systematics and Evolution 258: 161-182
Long, W. Christopher; Grow, Jacob N.; Majoris, John E.; Hines, Anson H. (2011) Effects of anthropogenic shoreline hardening and invasion by Phragmites australis on habitat quality for juvenile blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 409: 215-222
Marks, Marianne; Lapin, Beth; Randall, John (1994) Phragmites australis (P. communis): Threats, management, and monitoring, Natural Areas Journal 14: 285-294
Martindale, I. C. (1875) The introduction of foreign plants, Botanical Gazette 2: 55-58
Massey, A. B. (1961) Virginia flora, an annotated catalog of plant taxa recorded as occuring [sic] in Virginia., Technical Bulletin Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station 155.: 1-258.
Matoh, T.; Matsushita, N.,;Takahashi, E. (1988) Salt tolerance of the reed plant Phragmites communis, Physiologia Plantarum 72: 8-14
McCormick, Melissa K.; Kettenring, Karin M.; Baron, Heather M.; Whigham, Dennis F. (2010) Extent and reproductive mechanisms of Phragmites australis spread in brackish wetlands in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland (USA), Wetlands 30: 67-74
McCormick, Melissa K.; Kettenring, Karin M.; Baron, Heather M.; Whigham, Dennis F. (2011) Spread of invasive Phragmites australis in estuaries with differing degrees of development: genetic patterns, Allee effects and interpretation, Journal of Ecology 98: 1369-1378
Meadows, Robert E.; Saltonstall, Kristin (2007) Distribution of native and introduced Phragmites australis in freshwater and oligohaline tidal marshes of the Delmarva peninsula and southern New Jersey, Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 134: 99-107
Metzler, Ken; Rozsa, Ron (1986) Additional notes on the tidal wetlands of the Connecticut River, Newsletter of the Connecticut Botanical Society 14: 1-7
Meyer, David L.; Johnson, John M.; Gill, John W. (2001) Comparison of nekton use of (Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora marshes in the Chesapeake Bay, USA, Marine Ecology Progress Series 209: 71-84
Meyerson, Laura A.; Cronin, James T. (2013) Evidence for multiple introductions of Phragmites australis to North America: detection of a new non-native haplotype, Biological Invasions published online: null
Meyerson, Laura A.; Viola, David V.; Brown, Rebecca N. (2010) Hybridization of invasive Phragmites australis with a native subspecies in North America, Biological Invasions 12: 103-111
Mikkola, Kauri; LaFontaine, J. Donald (1994) Recent introductions of riparian noctuid moths from the Palearctic region to North America, with the first report of Apamea unanimis (Hubner) (Noctuidae: Amphipyrinae)., Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 48: 121-127
Mozdzer, Thomas J.; Megonigal, J. Patrick (2012) Jack-and-master trait responses to elevated CO2 and N: A comparison of native and introduced Phragmites australis, PLOS ONE 7: e42794
Mozdzer, Thomas J.; Zieman, Joseph C.; McGlathery, Karen J. (2010) Nitrogen uptake by native and invasive temperate coastal macrophytes: importance of dissolved organic nitrogen, Estuaries and Coasts 33: 784-797
Osgood, David T.; Yozzo, David J.; Chambers, Randy M.; Jacobson, Dana; Hoffman, Timothy; Wnek, Jason (2003) Tidal hydrology and habitat utilization by resident nekton in Phragmites and non-Phragmites marshes., Estuaries 26: 522-533
Philipp, Charles C.; Brown, Russell C. (1965) Ecological studies of transition-zone vascular plants in South River, Maryland, Chesapeake Science 6: 73-81
Redmond, Paul J. (1932) A flora of Worcester County, Maryland, Contributions from the Biological Laboratory of the Catholic University of America 11: 1-104
Reveal, James L. (1983) Significance of pre-1753 botanical explorations in temperate North America on Linnaeus' first edition of Species Plantarum, Phytologia 53: 1-96
Rice, Dan; Rooth, Jll; Stevenson, J. Court (2000) Colonization and expansion of Phragmites australis in upper Chesapeake tidal wetlands, Wetlands 20: 280-299.
Roman, Charles T.; Niering, William A.; Warren, R. Scott (1984) Salt marsh vegetation change in response to tidal restriction, Environmental Management 8: 141-150
Rooth, J. E.; Stevenson, J. C. (2000) Sediment deposition patterns in Phragmites australis communities: Implications for coastal areas threatened by rising sea-level, Wetlands Ecology and Management 8: 173-183
Saltonstall, Kristin (2002a) Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the Common Reed, Phragmites australis, into North America., Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences 99: 2445-2449
Saltonstall, Kristin; Peterson, Paul M.; Soreng, Robert J. (2004) Recognition of Phragmites australis subsp. americanus (Poaceae: Arundinoideae) in North America: evidence from morpholigical and genetic analyses., Sida 21: 683-692
Stalter, Richard; Baden, John (1994) A twenty-year comparison of vegetation of three abandoned rice fields, Georgetown County, South Carolina, Castanea 59: 69-77
Strong, Mark T.; Kelloff, Carol L. (1994) Intertidal vascular plants of Brent Marsh, Potomac River, Stafford County, Virginia, Castanea 59: 354-366
Stuckey, Ronald L.; Salamon, Douglas P. (1987) Typha angustifolia in North America: a foreigner masquerading as a native, Ohio Journal of Science 87: 4
Tucker, Gordon C. (1990) The genera of Arundinoideae (Graminae) in the southeastern United States, Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 71: 145-177
Van Der Toorn, J.; Mook, J. H. (1982) Influence of environmental factors and management on stands of Phragmites australis, Journal of Applied Ecology 19: 477-499
Vasquez, Edward A.; Glenn, Edward P. ; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Brown, Jed; Nelson, Stephen G. (2007) Salt tolerance and osmotic adjustment of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) and the invasive M haplotype of Phragmites australis (Poaceae) along a salinity gradient., American Journal of Botany 93: 1784-1790
Vasquez, Edward A.; Glenn, Edward P.; Brown, Jed.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Nelson, Stephen G. (2005) Salt tolerance underlies the cryptic invasion of North American salt marshes by an introduced haplotype of the common reed Phragmites australis (Poaceae)., Marine Ecological Progress Series 298: 1-8
Wagner, David L.; Ferguson, Doug C.; Glaser, John D. (2003) Sclerocona acutella (Crambidae: Pryaustinae), naturalized along the eastern seaboard., Journal of Lepidopterist Society 57: 270-273
Ward, Daniel B. (2010) North America has two species of Phragmites (Gramineae), Castanea 75: 394-401
Ward, L. F. (1881) Guide to the flora of Washington and Vicinity, United States National Museum Bulletin 22: 1-264
Wass, Melvin L. (1972) A checklist of the biota of lower Chesapeake Bay, Special Scientific Report, Virginia Institute of Marine Science 65: 1-290
Weinstein, Michael P.; Balletto, John H. (1999) Does the common reed, Phragmites australis, affect essential fish habitat?, Estuaries 22:
Weis, Judith S; Weis, Peddrick (2000) Behavioral responses and interactions of estuarine animals with an invasive marsh plant: a laboratory analysis, Biological Invasions 2: 305-314
Yozzo, David J.; Osgood, David T. (2013) Invertebrate communities of low-salinity wetlands: overview and comparison between Phragmites and Typha marshes within the Hudson river estuary, Estuaries and Coasts 36: 575-584

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