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Calyptospadix cerulea
Image courtesy of Ruiz Lab, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
Calyptospadix cerulea
Taxonomic Group: Cnidarians-Hydrozoans


Garveia franciscana, commonly known as the Rope-Grass hydroid, lacks a planktonic medusa stage. It was first collected and described from San Francisco Bay, California in 1901, but its native region is uncertain. It has a highly disjunct global distribution, which suggests that it may be introduced over much of its range. It is known from Europe, the Black and Azov Seas, West Africa, India, Australia, California, the Atlantic coast of North America, the Gulf of Mexico, Panama, and South America. It is a widespread fouling organism and settles on a range of substrates, including shells, rocks, wood, vegetation, pilings, and buoys. It can have negative impacts by fouling power plants and other industrial water systems and under suitable conditions can compete with native fouling organisms.

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Fofonoff PW, Ruiz GM, Steves B, Simkanin C, & Carlton JT (2018)
National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System.
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Marine Invasions Lab
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center

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Edgewater, MD 21037-0028 Tel: 443 482 2200
Fax: 443 482 2380

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