National Estuarine and Marine Exotic Species Information System

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
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Welcome to the Panama Non-native Estuarine and Marine Organisms (Pan-NEMO) database!

Pan-NEMO provides information on introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates and fishes with established populations in the Republic of Panama. The database contains a brief overview of each species, including its taxonomy, occurrence records, distribution, and history of spread. Pan-NEMO also provides summaries of introduced species by taxonomic group and time, for each of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Panama.

The creation of Pan-NEMO draws upon years of research and literature review, and remains an ongoing project. Records are updated as new species are reported and new research is available.

Each species record contains:

  • Photographic images and descriptions;
  • Information on the biology, ecology, and effects (impacts);
  • Global distribution maps of native and introduced range;
  • Mechanisms (vectors) of introduction;
  • History of introduction and spread;
  • References to available literature for the species and invasion information.

Background Information

Pan-NEMO is a joint effort by the Smithsonian Institution's Environmental Research Center (SERC) and Tropical Research Institute (STRI) to document the distribution of nonindigenous species in the Republic of Panama's coastal and estuarine waters. It was supported by the Smithsonian Institution and Panama's Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SENACYT) in collaboration with the Autoridad de Canal de Panama (ACP), Autoridad Maritima de Panama (AMP) and MiAmbiente. The baseline inventory was supplemented by existing data, including historical surveys and literature sources. To keep the data as accessible as possible records from Panama are merged into the National Estuarine and Marine Exotic Species Information System (NEMESIS).


Please use the following citation when referencing Pan-NEMO.

Fofonoff PW, Ruiz GM, Steves B, Carlton JT, Simkanin C, Schlöder C & Torchin ME. 2017. Panama Non-native Estuarine and Marine Organisms (Pan-NEMO) System.
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