Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1943
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1943
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:

The bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana was described from Europe, where it occurs from Norway to the Mediterranean and Black Seas (Ryland 1965, Hayward and Ryland 1979; Hayward and Ryland 1999). It was first collected in the Northwest Atlantic in 1855 in Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey (Leidy 1855). It is now known from the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida (Maturo 1958; Winston 1977; Winston 1982). We consider it cryptogenic in the Northwest Atlantic, and also in the Northwest Pacific (Russia-Japan-Korea-China) (Zvyagintsev 1985; Huang 2001; Seo 1998). This bryozoan is common in ship fouling (Ryland 1965) and has been widely introduced to the Southwest Atlantic (Brazil-Argentina), the Northeast Pacific (Vancouver Island to San Diego), and the Southwest Pacific (Australia-New Zealand).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

Cryptosula pallasiana was first recorded on the West Coast at Hunter's Point Shipyard in San Francisco Bay in 1943 (Carlton 1979; Cohen and Carlton 1995), and was found at Newport Bay in 1944 (Scheer 1945, cited by Carlton 1979). It was doubtless present many years earlier in both locations (James Carlton, personal communication, 2013). It was reported from Sitka, Alaska, in 1951 (James T. Carlton, personal communication) but is only known to be established as far north as Pendrell Sound, Vancouver Island, British Columbia (Powell 1970). Currently, it occurs from either Mexico (Soule et al. 2007) or San Diego Bay (Fairey et al. 2002; Ruiz et al., unpublished data) northward, in most of the large and small harbors and bays of California including: Alamitos Bay (in 1962, Reish 1963, cited by Carlton 1979), Los Angeles Harbor (in 1965, Banta 1970, cited by Carlton 1979), Morro Bay (in 2001, Fairey et al. 2002), Monterey Bay (before 1952, Osburn 1952, cited by Calton 1979), Elkhorn Slough (in 1998, Wasson et al. 2001), Tomales Bay (in 2000, Fairey et al. 2002), Bodega Harbor (before 1975, Standing 1975, cited by Carlton 1979, in 2000, Fairey et al. 2002), Fort Bragg Harbor (in 2000, Fairey et al. 2002), and Humboldt Bay (in 2000, Boyd et al. 2002). None of these newer records reflect recent expansion of the species, but rather simply a lack of prior reporting (James Carlton, personal communication, 2013). 

Further north along the coast, Cryptosula pallasiana occurs in Coos Bay, Oregon (in 1988, Carlton 1989; Wonham and Carlton 2005), Grays Harbor (McCain and Ross 1974); Puget Sound (Cohen et al. 1998), Padilla Bay (in 2003, de Rivera et al. 2005), and as noted above, Pendrell Sound, Vancouver Island, British Columbia (Powell 1970).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

In the Southwest Atlantic, Cryptosula pallasiana was reported from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil by Marcus (1942). It was reported from Argentina in 1978, from Puerto Belgrano and Quequén (Orensanz et al. 2002, Gappa 2000). In the Southeast Atlantic, it was collected in Table Bay Harbor, South Africa in 1947 (Mead et al. 2011b). In the Southwest Pacific, C. pallasiana was first collected in Australian waters (Port Phillip Bay, Australia) in 1890 (Keough and Ross 1999), and in New Zealand in 1895 at Wanganui, Napier and Dunedin, New Zealand (Cranfield et al. 1998). In New Zealand, it now occurs 'at almost every port' (Gordon and Mawatari 1992). In Australia, it occurs in the Gulf of St. Vincent, Port Phillip and Westernport Bays, and Sydney Harbor (Keough and Ross 1999), and also in Queensland and Western Australia (Hewitt 2002). We note again that more than one species may be involved in these many records. 


Description

Cryptosula pallasiana forms encrusting colonies, which may be white, pink or orange, and sometimes rise into frills. They can encrust shells and ‘almost any hard substrate’ (Winston 1982). The zooids are oval to rectangular or hexagonal, steeply convex, and separated by deep grooves, giving a beaded appearance to the colony surface. The colonies are ~ 600-1,000 µm X 350-500 µm in size. The primary orifice is bell-shaped, occupying 1/3 to 1/2 of the frontal surface of the zooid. The frontal shield is thickly calcified, and has ~10 to 30 pores, decreasing in number and relative size as the zooids age, but devleoping rough, bumpy rims. A swelling develops below the orifice in older zooids, sometimes with an avicularium (rare or absent at some locations). The embryos are orange and conspicuous, brooded in ovisacs within zooids (description from: Maturo 1958; Winston 1982; Hayward and Ryland 1990; Gordon and Mawatari 1992; Winston and Hayward 2012).

This 'species' probably comprises a global species complex, 'possibly involving a combination of regional endemic species, upon which ship-fouling introductions have been added' , (Mead et al. 2011b), thus complicating interpretation of its status in much of the world..


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Bryozoa
Class:   Gymnolaemata
Order:   Cheilostomata
Suborder:   Ascophora
Family:   Cryptosulidae
Genus:   Cryptosula
Species:   pallasiana

Synonyms

Eschara pallasiana (Moll, 1803)
Escharina pediostoma (Leidy, 1855)
Lepralia americana (Osburn, 1912)
Lepralia pallasiana (Hincks, 1880)
Smittina pallasiana (Levinsen, 1909)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Ecology

General:

Life History- Cryptosula pallasiana is an encrusting, calcified bryozoan colony composed of many individual zooids. The zooids feed by extending the ciliated tentacles of the lophophore as a funnel, creating a current, and driving food particles into their mouths. The food is guided along the tentacles and through the pharynx by the cilia. The food is guided along the tentacles and through the pharynx by the cilia. Larger food particles can be moved or captured by flicking or contracting the tentacles (Barnes 1983). Larvae of C. pallasiana are lecithotrophic, and have a short planktonic period (less than 1 day, Hayward and Ryland 1999). Larvae settle on a substrate and metamorphose into the first zooid of a colony, an ancestrula (Barnes 1983).

Ecology- Cryptosula pallasiana is tolerant of brackish water (Winston 1977; Occhipinti Ambrogi and d'Hondt 1981) and is known from eelgrass beds, oyster beds, pilings, shells, rocks, floats and ships' hulls (Ryland 1965; Winston 1982; Hayward and Ryland 1999).

Food:

Phytoplankton

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder

SusFed

Habitats

General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Maximum Temperature (ºC)24.7Field, US East & West Coast marinas (Lord et al. 2015)
Minimum Salinity (‰)19Field data: Coastal lagoons, Italy (Occhipinti Ambrogi and d'Hondt 1981).
Maximum Salinity (‰)38Typical Mediterranean Sea salinity
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate-Warm temperate
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Cryptosula pallasiana is a common species in ship and dock fouling communities (Ryland 1965; Zvyagintsev 1985); however, there are no economic and ecological impacts reported for this bryozoan.

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NA-ET3 Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras 1855 Crypto Estab
NA-ET2 Bay of Fundy to Cape Cod 0 Crypto Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 0 Crypto Estab
NEP-III Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound 1970 Def Estab
NEP-IV Puget Sound to Northern California 1972 Def Estab
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 1943 Def Estab
NEP-VI Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California 1944 Def Estab
NEA-II None 0 Native Estab
AR-V None 0 Native Estab
MED-II None 0 Native Estab
MED-III None 0 Native Estab
MED-VII None 0 Native Estab
MED-IX None 0 Native Estab
AUS-XII None 2002 Def Estab
NZ-IV None 1895 Def Estab
NZ-VI None 1989 Def Estab
AUS-VIII None 1890 Def Estab
AUS-X None 1999 Def Estab
AUS-VII None 1977 Def Estab
AUS-IV None 1997 Def Estab
SA-I None 1978 Def Estab
NEA-V None 0 Native Estab
NWP-4a None 1966 Crypto Estab
NWP-3a None 0 Crypto Estab
NEA-III None 0 Native Estab
NEA-IV None 0 Native Estab
MED-VI None 0 Native Estab
SA-II None 1942 Def Estab
P050 San Pedro Bay 1962 Def Estab
P130 Humboldt Bay 2000 Def Estab
P020 San Diego Bay 2000 Def Estab
P170 Coos Bay 1988 Def Estab
P030 Mission Bay 2000 Def Estab
P022 _CDA_P022 (San Diego) 1952 Def Estab
P023 _CDA_P023 (San Louis Rey-Escondido) 2000 Def Estab
P040 Newport Bay 1944 Def Estab
P060 Santa Monica Bay 1972 Def Estab
P062 _CDA_P062 (Calleguas) 2001 Def Estab
P064 _CDA_P064 (Ventura) 2003 Def Estab
P065 _CDA_P065 (Santa Barbara Channel) 2001 Def Estab
P070 Morro Bay 2001 Def Estab
P080 Monterey Bay 1952 Def Estab
P090 San Francisco Bay 1943 Def Estab
P110 Tomales Bay 2000 Def Estab
P112 _CDA_P112 (Bodega Bay) 1975 Def Estab
P116 _CDA_P116 (Big Navaro-Garcia) 2000 Def Estab
P290 Puget Sound 1972 Def Estab
P293 _CDA_P293 (Strait of Georgia) 2003 Def Estab
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 0 Crypto Estab
S030 Bogue Sound 0 Crypto Estab
P093 _CDA_P093 (San Pablo Bay) 1943 Def Estab
P100 Drakes Estero 2006 Def Estab
MED-V None 0 Native Estab
SP-XXI None 1996 Def Unk
P288 _CDA_P288 (Dungeness-Elwha) 1972 Def Estab
P280 Grays Harbor 1972 Def Estab
AUS-V None 1997 Def Estab
WA-IV None 1947 Def Estab
WA-I None 1909 Crypto Estab
P027 _CDA_P027 (Aliso-San Onofre) 2011 Def Estab
B-I None 0 Native Estab
B-II None 0 Native Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude
767320 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-13 Coast Guard, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.3126 -123.0512
767343 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-21 Lucas/Tides, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.3284 -123.0445
767350 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-21 Porto Bodega, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.3333 -123.0525
767362 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-22 Tomales-Marshall, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.1514 -122.8888
767421 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-19 SeaWorld Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7676 -117.2314
767434 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-23 Marina Village, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7605 -117.2364
767454 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-29 Mission Bay Yacht Club, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7778 -117.2485
767474 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-04 Bahia Resort Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7731 -117.2478
767504 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-01 Hyatt Resort Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7634 -117.2397
767521 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-03 Mission Bay Sport Center, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7857 -117.2495
767535 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-30 Hilton Resort Docks, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7791 -117.2128
767549 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-02 The Dana Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7671 -117.2363
767563 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-05 Paradise Point Resort, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7730 -117.2406
767575 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-30 201 Main, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3564 -120.8474
767588 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-27 City Harbor, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3709 -120.8582
767600 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-09-05 Launch Ramp, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3577 -120.8508
767622 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-31 Morro Bay Marina, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3641 -120.8532
767640 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-09-03 State Park Marina, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3459 -120.8423
767652 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-09-04 Tidelands, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3602 -120.8521
767675 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-17 Naval Station San Diego, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6867 -117.1333
767704 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-25 Navy Ammo Dock, Pier Bravo, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6939 -117.2276
767757 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-26 Pier 32 Marina, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6516 -117.1077
767798 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-15 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9117 -122.3494
767811 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2012-09-20 San Leandro Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6979 -122.1912
767817 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-20 San Francisco Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8067 -122.4432
767830 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-14 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5880 -122.3160
767851 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-13 Oyster Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6725 -122.3864
767866 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-13 Redwood City Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8046 -122.3985
767876 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2012-09-15 Berkeley Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8758 -122.3181
767885 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2012-09-19 Sausalito Marine Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8609 -122.4853
767900 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-21 South Beach Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7797 -122.3871
767913 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-20 Jack London Square Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7947 -122.2822
767927 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-22 Ballena Isle Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7676 -122.2869
767948 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-12 Paradise Cay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9156 -122.4769
767961 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-12 Corinthian Yacht Club, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8103 -122.3228
767976 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-24 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9134 -122.3523
767998 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-23 Sausalito Marine Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8609 -122.4853
768015 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-28 San Francisco Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8071 -122.4341
768053 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-11 Ballena Isle Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7676 -122.2869
768075 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-30 Oyster Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6633 -122.3817
768099 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-29 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5877 -122.3174
768146 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-06 Loch Lomond Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9736 -122.4802
768164 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-05 Port of Oakland, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7987 -122.3228
768187 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-07 Jack London Square Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7940 -122.2787
768226 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-13 San Leandro Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6962 -122.1919
768243 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-12 Emeryville, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8396 -122.3133
768266 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-15 Ballena Isle Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7656 -122.2858
768289 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-20 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5877 -122.3163
768309 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-22 Jack London Square Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7926 -122.2746
768327 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-23 Loch Lomond Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9723 -122.4829
768348 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-13 Oyster Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6639 -122.3821
768392 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-19 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9138 -122.3522
768411 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-12 San Francisco Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8078 -122.4354
768429 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-21 San Leandro Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6980 -122.1908
768443 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-16 Sausalito Marine Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8611 -122.4851

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