Invasion HistoryFirst Non-native North American Tidal Record: 2004
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 2004
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:
General Invasion History:
Laomedea calceolifera was originally described from the British Isles, and is now known from locations around the globe (Fraser 1944; Vervoort 2006; Appeltans et al. 2011). In the Northeast Atlantic, its presumed native region, it ranges from the White and Barents Seas (Linko 1911, Kudelin 1914 and Antsulevich 1987, cited by Vervoort 2006), to Spain, the Azores, the Cape Verde Islands (Vervoort 2006), and throughout the Mediterranean into the Black Sea (Bouillon et al. 2004). It is considered cryptogenic in the Western Atlantic, where it occurs from Gaspe, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Long Island Sound (Fraser 1944; MIT Sea Grant 2003), and on the coast of Brazil (Vannucci 1949, cited by Migotto et al. 2002). Introduced populations have been collected in the Northeast (California) and Northwest (China and Russia) Pacific.
North American Invasion History:
Invasion History on the West Coast:
In the Northeast Pacific, Laomedea calceolifera was collected in San Francisco Bay, California in a 2004 rapid assessment survey, at Richmond and Coyote Point Marinas (Cohen and Carlton 2005; Mills et al., in Carlton 2007). This hydroid has also been reported off Orange County, in southern California, but no reproductive structures were seen and the identification is tentative. A specimen, was identified as L. calceolifera by Dr. Sofia Stepanjants of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ljubenkov, in SCAMIT 2003), but until the identification is verified, we have not included it on our distribution map.
Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:
Laomedea calceolifera has been introduced to the Northwest Pacific, where it was first collected in Shandong, China in the Yellow Sea (Chen-sheng Kao, cited by Chalypigna 1992); and later found in Peter the Great Bay, in the vicinity of Vladivostok, Russia on docks and the hull of a boat (Chalypigna 1992). It has been found on a ship's hull in South Africa, but it is not established there (Millard 1975).
Laomedea calceolifera has fixed gonophores rather than a free medusa stage in its life cycle. It forms colonies up to 30 mm high, with erect stems arising from smooth, but twisting stolons. Branches are alternating left and right, and above each branching point are several rings. The hydrothecae are born on pedicels with multiple rings. They are deep and bell-shaped, with a smooth, distally flared margin. The male and female gonothecae are dissimilar when mature. The female gonothecae are club-shaped, with a sub-terminal curving aperture on one side. The male gonothecae are cylindrical, narrower than the female, and are elongate with a terminal aperture (description from: Bouillon et al. 2004; Vervoort 2006).
Eulaomedea calceolifera (Rees & Thursfield, 1965)
Lomedea calceolifera (Boero & Bouillon, 1993)
Potentially Misidentified Species
This hydroid is widely distributed in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean, and has been introduced into the Sea of Japan, in Russia (Chalypigna 1992; Bouillon et al. 2004; Vervoort 2006).
Laomedea calceolifera is a sessile hydrozoan which lacks a planktonic medusa stage. Colonies grow on a solid substrate, with polyps arising from a creeping stolon. The polyps form bushy structures, with many hydranths, whose tentacles capture zooplankton. The polyps produce gonophores, which produce either eggs or sperm. The egg develops into a ciliated non-feeding planula larva which is released into the water column (Bouillon et al. 2004; Vervoort 2006).
Planulae of L. calceolifera settle and grow on stones, seagrasses, seaweeds, docks, buoys, and pilings (Fraser 1944). It is also known from ships’ hulls and fouling plates (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1952; Chalypigna 1992). Laomedea calceolifera grows in cold-temperate to subtropical climates, and in the Black and Mediterranean Sea (Bouillon et al. 2004) where salinities range from 18 to 38 PSU.
|General Habitat||Marinas & Docks||None|
|General Habitat||Vessel Hull||None|
|Salinity Range||Mesohaline||5-18 PSU|
|Salinity Range||Polyhaline||18-30 PSU|
|Salinity Range||Euhaline||30-40 PSU|
Tolerances and Life History Parameters
|Maximum Height (mm)||30||Hydroid height (Bouillon et al. 2004; Vervoort 2006)|
|Broad Temperature Range||None||Cold temperate-Subtropical|
|Broad Salinity Range||None||Polyhaline-Euhaline|
General ImpactsThe hydroid Laomedea calceolifera is a common and widespread ship and dock fouling organism, but specific impacts have not been reported.
Regional Distribution Map
|Bioregion||Region Name||Year||Invasion Status||Population Status|
|NEP-V||Northern California to Mid Channel Islands||2004||Def||Estab|
|NA-ET2||Bay of Fundy to Cape Cod||0||Crypto||Estab|
|P090||San Francisco Bay||2004||Def||Estab|
|NA-ET3||Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras||0||Crypto||Estab|
|NA-ET1||Gulf of St. Lawrence to Bay of Fundy||0||Crypto||Estab|
|CAR-I||Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida||0||Crypto||Estab|
|PAN_PAC||Panama Pacific Coast||2008||Def||Estab|
|CAR-VII||Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida||1977||Crypto||Estab|
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