Invasion HistoryFirst Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1904
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1904
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:
General Invasion History:
Incisocalliope derzhavini was described from Petrov Island, Russia, in the Sea of Japan. Elsewhere in the Sea of Japan, it was collected on Ulleung Island, Korea (Kim and Kim 1991) and the west coast of Hokkaido. It has been reported from the northern Pacific coast of Japan, on Hokkaido and northern Honshu, but is not known from the southern coasts of Japan or Korea (Ishimaru 1984; Chapman 1988). On the West Coast of North America, I. derzhavini was first collected in 1904 in San Francisco Bay, California (CA) and is established from Puget Sound, WA to San Diego Bay, CA (Cohen et al. 1998; California Department of Fish and Wildlife 2014). Barnard (1959) described a subspecies, I. derzhavini makiki from Hawaii, which has been considered indistinguishable from the stem species and treated as an introduction (Ishimaru 1984; Chapman 1988; Carlton and Eldredge 2009), or as a separate, native species (Bousfield and Hendryks 1995, cited by Carlton and Eldredge 2009).
North American Invasion History:
Invasion History on the West Coast:
Incisocalliope derzhavini was collected near Oakland, California (CA), in San Francisco Bay in 1904 (Chapman 1988; USNM 235021, United States National Museum of Natural History 2007). In San Francisco Bay, it is frequently found among hydroids in fouling communities on floats and buoys in the central, South and San Pablo Bays. During dry/drought periods, it is found as far north as Collinsville in the Delta, over a salinity range of 6 to 32 PSU (Chapman 1988; Cohen and Carlton 1995). This amphipod was collected in Tomales Bay, CA in 1977 (Carlton 1979); Elkhorn Slough, CA in 1985 (Wasson et al. 2001); Coos Bay and Yaquina Bay, Oregon in 1986-1987 (Chapman 1988); Puget Sound, Washington in 1998 (Cohen et al. 1998); and Humboldt Bay, CA in 2000 (Boyd et al. 2002). The first collection in southern California may have been an amphipod identified as a new species, I. newportensis Barnard 1959, collected in Newport Bay in 1952. It was later re-identified by Barnard as Gnathopleustes pugettensis, but may have actually been I. derzhavini (Barnard and Reish 1959; Chapman 2007). Definite collections of I. derzhavini in Newport and San Diego Bays were made in 2011 (California Department of Fish and Wildlife 2014). Ballast water and hull fouling are considered the most likely vectors for the introduction of this amphipod.
Incisocalliope derzhavini is a small estuarine-marine amphipod, usually associated with intertidal and subtidal fouling invertebrates. It is a member of the family Pleustidae, which includes commensals, egg predators, and parasites of larger invertebrates. However, I. derzhavini is not known to have specialized associations. Incisocalliope derzhavini has a laterally compressed, roughly football-shaped body with a downward-curved abdomen. Coxal plates 1 to 4 are ovoid, overlapping, and increase in size posteriorly, while coxae 5-7 are smaller and vary in shape. Pereiopods 5-7 have enlarged ovoid bases, maintaining the body's outline. The dorsal pereonites are not keeled or ridged. The rostrum is of moderate length, with a blunt apex. The head is small, with a black, circular eye, surrounded by large, clear ommatidia. The head has a lateral lobe extended forward, with a blunt apex. Antenna 1 is ~60% of the body length, while Antenna 2 is about 40% of body length.
In the family Pleustidae, the portion of the left mandible called the 'lacinia mobilis' is a critical characteristic. In I. derzhavini, it has 8 denticles (Ishimaru 1984). The maxilliped has 2-3 short, stout spines on the distal medial edge of the inner plate, compared to 4-5 in Gnathopleustes pugettensis. The segments of the palp of the maxilliped are also more elongated in I. derzhavini than in G. pugettensis (Chapman 1988). Gnathopod 2 is somewhat longer than gnathopod 1, both have long dactyls, with the palms lined with spines and setae. Uropod 2 is 85% as long as Uropod 1; Uropod 3 is 60% as long. Each uropod is biramous and lined with spines. The telson is small and oval. The sexes do not show major morphological differences. Adults are 3.5 to 7.4 mm long. This sescription is based on: Ishimaru 1984, Chapman 1988, Kim and Kim 1991, and Chapman 2007.
Neopleustes derzhavini (Gurjanova, 1938)
Parapleustes derzhavini (Ishimaru, 1984)
Potentially Misidentified Species
Gnathopleustes pugettensis (Dana 1853) Northeast Pacific native
Northwest Atlantic native, introduced to the Netherlands (Faasse and Van Moorsel 2004)
It was described as a subspecies of I. derzhavini, but considered indinstinguishable by Ishimaru (1984) and Carlton and Eldredge (2009), who treated it as introduced to the Hawaiian islands. However, other sources (Bousfield and Hendryks 1995, cited by Carlton and Eldredge 2009; Integrated Taxonomic Information System 2015) consider I. makiki to be a full species, native to Hawaii.
Described from Newport Bay, doubtfully distinct from I. derzhavini.
Incisocalliope derzhavini has seperate sexes. Its young are brooded and development is direct (Bousfield 1973). One female contained 6 eggs (Kim and Kim 1991).
Based on its native range, from southern Pacific Russia, to South Korea and Japan, I. derzhavini tolerates a wide range of temperatures. In West Coast waters, I. derzhavini has been collected at salinities from 5.6-32 PSU (Chapman 1988). In Japan and Korea, this amphipod was collected from rocks and seaweeds, including Sargassum, Laminaria, and Leathesia spp. (Ishimaru 1984). In West Coast waters, I. derzhavini is closely associated with hydroids or bryozoans, often on artificial structures (Chapman 1988). It often occurs on marinas and docks, floats, and buoys (Chapman 1988), and was found in hull fouling on a retired ship in Suisun Bay (Llanso et al. 2011). Chapman (1988) suggests that I. derzhavini 's mouthparts are better suited for ectoparasitism than grazing.
|General Habitat||Coarse Woody Debris||None|
|General Habitat||Marinas & Docks||None|
|Salinity Range||Mesohaline||5-18 PSU|
|Salinity Range||Polyhaline||18-30 PSU|
|Salinity Range||Euhaline||30-40 PSU|
Tolerances and Life History Parameters
|Minimum Salinity (‰)||5.6||Field data, San Francisco Bay (Chapman 1988)|
|Maximum Salinity (‰)||32||Field data, San Francisco Bay (Chapman 1988)|
|Minimum Length (mm)||3.5||Adult female, Japan (Ishimaru 1984)|
|Maximum Length (mm)||7.4||Adult female, Japan (Ishimaru 1984)|
|Broad Temperature Range||None||Cold temperate|
|Broad Salinity Range||None||Mesohaline-Euhaline|
General ImpactsNo impacts have been reported for Incisocalliope derzhavini on the West Coast.
Regional Distribution Map
|Bioregion||Region Name||Year||Invasion Status||Population Status|
|NEP-V||Northern California to Mid Channel Islands||1904||Def||Estab|
|P090||San Francisco Bay||1904||Def||Estab|
|NEP-IV||Puget Sound to Northern California||1986||Def||Estab|
|NEP-III||Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound||1998||Def||Estab|
|P093||_CDA_P093 (San Pablo Bay)||1904||Def||Estab|
|NEP-VI||Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California||2011||Def||Estab|
|P020||San Diego Bay||0||Def||Estab|
|768139||Ruiz et al., 2015||2012||2012-09-06||Loch Lomond Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA||Def||37.9736||-122.4802|
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