Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1991
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1991

General Invasion History:

Dreissena polymorpha was first collected from the Caspian Sea by Pallas in 1769. Its native region is believed to be the Caspian and Aral Seas, and low-salinity lagoons of the Black Sea and adjacent rivers (Son 2007). Early in the 19th century, D. polymorpha invaded canals connecting to the Danube and Dnieper basins, and from there spread rapidly through Europe, reaching England and Prussia by 1825. This mussel is still invading new lakes in Europe (Karatayev et al. 1997; Ludyanskiy et al. 1993), and is abundant in low-salinity (0-6 ppt) estuaries from Finland and Baltic Russia to Ireland, Britain, France, Spain and the lagoons bordering the Black Sea (Strayer and Smith 1993).

In North America, Zebra Mussels were transported to many lakes and river systems through the 1990s and 2000s (Ludyanskiy et al. 1993; USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species 2012; Ram et al. 2011). In 2008, D. polymorpha found in the upper Colorado and Arkansas drainages in Colorado (Grand Lake and Pueblo Reservoir), a lake in Utah, and a reservoir in the Monterey Bay watershed, California (Center for Aquatic Resource Studies 2008). Canals and barges permitted zebra mussels to spread between many eastern and midwestern river basins, but many isolated rivers and lakes were infested through the transport of mussels on trailered boats or with fishing gear (Carlton 1993; Johnson et al. 2001; Karatayev et al. 2011; Kelly et al. 2012).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

Invasion History on the East Coast:

In North America, D. polymorpha was first reported in 1986, in Lake Erie, Ontario, fouling natural gas wellheads. Dead shells of D. polymorpha were collected in Lake Michigan, off East Chicago, Indiana in 1988, and in the same year the mussels were collected at several locations in Lake Ontario (Carlton 2008). A later discovery, in 1989, in Lake St. Clair, Ontario, between Lakes Erie and Michigan, was widely publicized (Mills et al. 1993). It was probably introduced to the Great Lakes system in ballast water of cargo ships from Europe. By 1990, it was found in all five Great Lakes, and the upper St. Lawrence River, covering a range of ~600 km north-south and 1400 km east-west, with populations being most continuous downstream of Lake St. Clair, and by 1992, it reached the estuary of the St. Lawrence River at Quebec City (freshwater) (Mellina and Rasmussen 1994; Ram et al. 2012; USGS Nonindigenous Species Program 2012). By 1993, it also colonized Lake Champlain (NY-VT) (Marsden and Hauser 2009).

In the freshwater St. Lawrence River, D. polymorpha was seen in August-September 1992, in the vicinity of Quebec City, in the rocky freshwater intertidal zone, at densities averaging 25 m-2. Mussels on the tops of boulders did not survive winter ice scour, but mussels survived in rock crevices (Mellina and Rasmussen 1994). By 2000, zebra mussel veligers were the most abundant zooplankton in the fresh-oligohaline region of the estuary, below Quebec City and the Ile d'Orleans, with densities as high as 260 L-1. Their abundance decreases sharply below 2 PSU, though a few veligers were found at 8 PSU (Barnard et al. 2003; Barnard 2006).

In the Hudson River estuary, Zebra Mussels were first seen in May 1991, at Catskill, New York (NY) about 200 km upriver (River Km 112) from the mouth of the Hudson in New York Harbor (River Km 0), and about 40 km downriver from the head of tide at Troy, NY (River Km 243) (Strayer et al. 1996). By the end of 1992, they were abundant in much of the tidal river, and found downriver as far as Tarrytown, NY~135 km downriver (River Km 65) where salinities reached 5-6 PSU (Walton 1996). A second invasion occurred in the lower Mohawk, a major tributary joining the Hudson at Troy in 1991. The two populations joined in 1992. By 1994, mean densities in the fresh tidal river were 10-1000 M-3. Possible vectors include boats or boat trailers from the Great Lakes, or barges from the Erie Canals (Strayer et al. 1996). While the eastern end of the canal was colonized by 1990, Zebra Mussels reached the Hudson before mussels were reported from the eastern parts of the canal or the lower Mohawk River (Strayer et al. 1996; USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2012). In the tidal fresh Hudson River, from Troy to Newburgh, the population showed dramatic fluctuations, with several peaks and crashes in abundance from 1992 to 2009, but with an overall trend of decreasing mussel size, biomass, filtration rate, and survivorship. One cause of the decline may be predation (Carlsson et al. 2011), but major predators such as Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus) have not increased in abundance. The mechanism of the decline and associated changes in Hudson River benthos are not clear (Strayer et al. 2011).

The invasion of Chesapeake Bay and its watershed had been long anticipated. In 1991, D. polymorpha veligers were reported from the Susquehanna River near Binghamton, NY (Lange and Cap 1991). Veligers reportedly occurred in low densities in 1991-1993, but then disappeared. In 2001, an established population of D. polymorpha was found in Eaton Brook Reservoir, on the Chenango River, in Madison County, New York, in the northern reaches of the Susquehanna Watershed. Based on the size of the mussels, the invasion probably began in 1999. They spread to other lakes in the region, and by 2004, they had reached the upper mainstem of the Susquehanna in Colliersville, NY (Otsego County). By 2007, they had reached Binghamton, NY and Finger Island, Pennsylvania (PA), in the Susquehanna (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2012). In November 2008, a single Zebra mussel was found alive, inside an intake at the Conowingo Dam, just above the head of tide of Chesapeake Bay (Thomson 2008, USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Programs 2009). In November 2008, D. polymorpha was also found further upstream in Pennsylvania, in Muddy Run, a tributary near the Maryland border. In December 2008 and May 2009, clumps of mussels were found above Conowingo Dam (Thomson 2008; Halsey 2009). In October 2011, one dead mussel was found attached to a jet-ski mooring in the Sassafras River near Betterton, Maryland (MD) (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2012). A recent report (Klauda and Ashton 2013) lists additional collections in the lower Susquehanna River and Susquehanna Flats, at the head of the Bay. In the summer of 2015, settling juveniles were collected from the Bush, Gunpowder and Middle River estuaries, tributaries of the upper Bay (Wheeler 2015). Veligers have also been collected at power plants and drinking water intakes in the lower Susquehanna. This mussel appears to be established in the lower Susquehanna and is colonizing tidal fresh regions of upper Chesapeake Bay (Klauda and Ashton 2013; Ashton and Klauda 2015).

Scattered occurrences have occurred in other East Coast watersheds, but have not yet reached tidal waters. In 2001, D. polymorpha was found in East Twin Lake, CT, in the Berkshire Mountains and the watershed of the Housatonic River, ultimately draining into Long Island Sound. In 2009, it was found in another Berkshire lake, Laurel Lake in Lee, MA. The mussel is now found in the upper Housatonic around the MA-CT border, and in 2010-2011, the lower river, in Lake Zoar and Lake Housatonic, about 10-2 km from Long Island Sound (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2012). Isolated populations were found in 2000 in a reservoir near Bethlehem, PA in the Delaware drainage, and in 2002, in a quarry in the Potomac watershed. The quarry population was believed to have been stocked illegally by divers to clear the water (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2012). The mussels were successfully eradicated in 2006 (Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries 2008 http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/zebramussels/).

Invasion History on the Gulf Coast:

In 1991, D. polymorpha was collected outside the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence system for the first time, colonizing the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers, by way of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (Tucker et al. 1993). It rapidly spread through much of the central Mississippi drainage, reaching the lower Mississippi (Vicksburg, Mississippi) by 1992 (Ludyanskiy et al. 1993), New Orleans, LA by 1993, and the mouth of the river by 1994 (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2012). In 1995, Zebra Mussels were abundant in the Atchafalaya River basin, LA including the Intracoastal Canal, but subject to seasonal die-offs in summer (Mihuc et al. 1999). The mussels occur in many of the rivers and bayous of Louisiana's delta region (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2012).

Invasion History in Hawaii:

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

Dreissena polymorpha evolved in the Ponto-Caspian region, and is one of many recent and fossil Dreissena species known from the area. In preglacial times, it was widespread in Western Europe, but died off due to glaciation (Son 2007). It re-entered Western Europe very early, with the construction of canals in the 18th and early 19th centuries reaching the Rhine in Netherlands by 1826, the Elbe in Germany by 1838, and the Baltic basin by 1840 or 1850 (Karateyev et al. 1997; Bij de Vaate et al. 2002; Minchin et al. 2002; Birnbaum 2011). It was discovered in the Thames River, London, in 1826 and appeared in several other British ports in the 1830s, apparently with timber imported from mainland Europe (Aldridge et al. 2004). Zebra mussels continued to spread in the 20th century, not only through canals, but also with fishing gear, as bait, and with trailered boats, etc., to unconnected lakes and rivers. They appeared in Sweden in 1926 (Hallstan et al. 2010), Italy in 1971 (Lake Garda and Po estuary, Occhipinti Ambrogi 2002), Ireland in 1997 (Minchin 2005), and Spain in 2001 (Ebro River, Rajagopal et al. 2009), and are continuing to colonize new bodies of water.

Zebra Mussels are found in tidal fresh and oligohaline waters of many European estuaries, but are limited by intolerance of high salinity, air exposure, ice scour, and extremes of temperature. In the Baltic region, it is absent from the open sea, but is common in adjoining lagoons and estuaries, where low salinities and warmer temperatures permit reproduction (Strayer and Smith 1993). They reached Lake Ladoga, Russia, east of the Baltic by the mid-1800s. The mussels were present in the Polula River estuary, Estonia, in the Gulf of Finland, and Pärnu Bay in the Gulf of Riga. A later invasion of the eastern Gulf of Finland occurred in the 1930s, from Lake Peipsi (Estonia-Russia) via the Narva River (Birnbaum 2011). A more extensive invasion of the eastern Gulf of Finland, in the Neva River estuary, west of St. Petersburg, Russia, occurred in the 1980s. The northward expansion of the range of D. polymorpha may result from climate warming (Orlova and Panov 2004). Elsewhere in the Baltic, zebra mussels are present in the Gulf of Riga, Estonia-Latvia (in 1855, Birnbaum 2011; Leppakoski et al. 2002); the Curonian Lagoon, Lithuania (before 1850, Daunys et al. 2006); the Vistula Lagoon, Poland; and the Szczecin Lagoon, Poland (1924, Stanczykowska et al. 2010). In the Rhine Delta, in the Netherlands, D. polymorpha was limited to areas below an average of 0.6 PSU, and was absent from intertidal areas (Wolff 1969, cited by Strayer and Smith 1993).


Description

Dreissena polymorpha belongs to the family of 'false mussels' (Dreissenidae), mostly associated with fresh and brackish (but sometimes estuarine) waters. They are distinguished from true mussels (Mytilidae) by having a small shelf-like platform, on the interior of both shells at the beak. This is the site of attachment of the adductor muscle. Like true mussels, they have an elongate, curved shell, narrowing at the umbo, and attach to hard substrates, by secreting strong threads, called byssus. Dreissena polymorpha is easily confused with D. bugensis (Quagga Mussel, native to the Ponto-Caspian region) and Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad's False Mussel, native from Mexico to Chesapeake Bay) (Abbott 1974; Pathy and Mackie 1993). Mytilopsis leucophaeta is easily recognized by a prominent tooth at the dorsal corner of the platform, inside the shell's beak (Pathy and Mackie 1993).

Dreissena polymorpha has a sharply pointed umbo, and is strongly curved inward, ventroposterially, while D. bugensis curves outward. They have a ventrolateral ridge on each shell and often have a more rounded and higher dorsoanterior slope, sometimes with a winglike extension. The ventral surface of D. bugensis is arched inward, with a flattened surface where the shells join, so the shell usually stands up when placed on its ventral edge, whereas D. polymorpha has a keeled ventral edge, and falls over. The posterior end of the shell is angled ventrally, while in D. bugensis, this end is rounded. When viewed from the edge, the two valves of D. polymorpha are symmetrical, with the edges of the two shells forming a straight line, while in D. bugensis, the shells are asymmetrical and join in a curved line. The color patterns are highly variable in both D. bugensis and D. polymorpha. Dreissena polymorpha can be all brown, black, or white, or have various striped patterns on the exterior. This mussel can grow to 5 cm in length, but is typically much smaller (Pathy and Mackie 1993; USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2012). Larval development of D. polymorpha and D. bugensis is described by Nichols and Black (1994).


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Mollusca
Class:   Bivalvia
Subclass:   Heterodonta
Order:   Veneroida
Superfamily:   Dreissenoidea
Family:   Dreissenidae
Genus:   Dreissena
Species:   polymorpha

Synonyms

Potentially Misidentified Species

Dreissena rostriformis bugensis
None

Ecology

General:

Dreissena polymorpha has separate sexes which release eggs and sperm into the water, resulting in planktonic larvae, first a trochophore, and then a shelled veliger. Fecundity varies with size, from around 500 eggs for females with shells ~10 mm long to 150-300,000 for females 20-25 mm long (Stoeckel et al. 2004). Annual fecundity is estimated at 960,000 embryos per year (Keller et al. 2007). Some females can produce more than one million eggs per spawning (Sprung 1993). Laboratory reared larvae of D. polymorpha, at 22-24?C, reached the pediveliger stage, and began to settle at about 15-23 days from fertilization (Wright et al. 1996; Stoeckel et al. 2004). Successful reproduction and larval development occurs at 12-27?C (Sprung 1993; Fong et al. 1995; Wright et al. 1996). Reproduction is most successful in freshwater, but fertilization and development take place successfully at 3.5 PSU, with acclimated animals (Fong et al. 1995). Veligers can be extremely abundant. They are the dominant form of zooplankton in the estuarine transition zone of the St. Lawrence River, but their source of nutrition, bacteria and dissolved organic carbon, were not used by native plankton. Isotopic analysis indicates that they are not heavily fed on by native fishes (Barnard et al. 2006).

Zebra Mussels settle on hard substrate such as rock, wood, and man-made structures, but also on vegetation (Sprung 1993; Mellina and Rasmussen 1994; Strayer et al. 1996). Soft bottom sediments including sand, silt and mud are usually regarded as unsuitable habitat. They use byssal threads to attach to hard surfaces, but can settle in clumps on soft substrates, attaching to scattered shells and other hard objects, or the sediment surface (Berkman et al. 1998). They are most often found in shallow waters, but have been reported at over 110 m depth (Mackie 1993; Martel et al. 2001; Ricciardi and Whoriskey 2004). In the St. Lawrence estuary, Quebec, some Zebra Mussels occurred and survived the winter in intertidal rock crevices (Mellina and Rasmussen 1994), but usually, they are absent in intertidal areas, due to temperature extremes and ice scour (Strayer and Smith 1993; Strayer et al. 1996).

Adult Zebra Mussels tolerate short exposures to temperatures as high as 37?C with acclimation (Spidle et al. 1995), but the upper limit for long-term survival is about 30?C (Iwanyzki and McCauley 1993; McMahon 1996). They do tolerate temperatures near zero, and survive in ice-covered lakes, but require temperatures of at least 10-12?C for optimal feeding, growth, and reproduction (McMahon 1996). North American populations appear to have a higher upper thermal limit, than European ones, ~ 30?C vs. 27-28?C (McMahon 1996), which could be due to genetic differences, acclimation or to different experimental methods.

Reported salinity tolerances vary geographically, partly with the composition of salts involved, and with experimental methods. Zebra Mussels are well-established in the northern Caspian Sea, at 6-9 g. L-1, and, formerly, in the Aral Sea at 10 g. L-1, but the salts of these inland lakes differ in composition from seawater (Strayer and Smith 1993). Zebra mussels could not tolerate pure NaCl above 5 g. L-1 (Spidle et al. 1995), but natural or artificial seawater appears to be less toxic. Adult Zebra mussels survive gradual acclimation to 10 PSU (Wright et al. 1996), but may have much lower salinity limits in areas with variable salinities (~2 PSU, Sea of Azov, Zenkevich 1965; 0.6 PSU, Rhine Delta, Wolff 1969, both cited by Strayer and Smith 1993), or additional stresses, such as air exposure.  In simulated ship trasport experiments, a few (>0.1%) survived up to 8 days in marine waters (35#% PSU) suggesting that fouling transport is possible, but improbalbe at low temperatures (Riley et al. 2022).

In fresh waters, other ions can affect the invasibility of D. polymorpha. The lower pH limit for adult mussels has been reported to be about 7.5, with dissolution of shells occurring at lower levels (Baker et al. 1994; McMahon 1996; Claudi et al. 2012). Calcium concentrations are another water-quality factor which may limit the distribution of D. polymorpha, and in the nontidal St. Lawrence River, Zebra Mussels occurred at levels as low as 7.5 mg Ca .L-1 (Jones and Ricciardi 2005). However, higher concentrations (18-21 mg L-1) greatly improve survival and growth (McMahon 1996; Baldwin et al. 2012). Zebra Mussels have high oxygen requirements, and survive severe hypoxia (3% saturation) only for 3-5 days at 25?C, which may limit their distribution in eutrophic waters (McMahon 1996; Matthews and McMahon 1999).

Dreissenid mussels are suspension feeders, pumping large quantities of water through their gills, retaining particles, and sloughing off surplus or inedible particles as pseudofeces. Zebra Mussels maintained high filtration rates for particles 10-150 µm. Large mussels were capable of capturing particles up to 900-1200 µm, which can include small zooplankton, and large, chain-forming diatoms. However, they have some degree of selectivity, and can exclude detritus, inorganic particles, or toxic items, such as toxic Microcystis colonies (Horgan and Mills 1997; Baker 1998; Vanderploeg et al. 2001). However, in the Hudson River estuary, terrestrial detritus is estimated to constitute ~40% of the Zebra Mussels' diet (Cole and Solomon 2012).

Food:

Phytoplankton, detritus, small zooplankton

Consumers:

Fishes, birds, crayfish

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder

SusFed

Habitats

General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatNontidal FreshwaterNone
General HabitatTidal Fresh MarshNone
General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatCanalsNone
General HabitatRockyNone
Salinity RangeLimnetic0-0.5 PSU
Salinity RangeOligohaline0.5-5 PSU
Salinity RangeMesohaline5-18 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Tidal RangeLow IntertidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone

Life History


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)0Baker et al. 1994; Fong et al. 1995; IIwanyzki and McCauley 1993; Ludyanskiy et al. 1993; McMahon 1996
Maximum Temperature (ºC)34Baker et al. 1994; Fong et al. 1995; Iwanyzki and McCauley 1993; Ludyanskiy et al. 1993; McMahon 1996
Minimum Salinity (‰)0None
Maximum Salinity (‰)10Fong et al. 1995; Kilgour et al. 1994; Strayer and Smith 1993; Wright et al. 1996. Salinity- Results presented by various authors have differed as a result of methods used, including different acclimation regimes and salt solutions used. [Spidle et al. (1995) used NaCl solutions, which may not be comparable to seawater, because of the lack of physiologically necessary ions. Observations in the species' native Caspian-Aral region are also not comparable because of differences in ionic composition.] The 10 ppt 'Survival' value was for juvenile mussels gradually acclimated to artificial seawater (1ppt/day) and then kept for 7.5 months (Wright et al. 1996). In simulated voyages, using animals from the Netherlands, <em>D. polymorpha, </em> had a high tolerance at 0.2-6.0 PSU (van der Gaag et al. 2016), with 164-308 days for 100% mortality.
Minimum Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l)1.7McMahon 1996
Minimum pH7Baker et al. 1994; McMahon 1996; Claudi et al. 2012
Maximum pH9Baker et al. 1994; McMahon 1996; Claudi et al. 2012
Minimum Reproductive Temperature12Sprung 1996
Maximum Reproductive Temperature27Sprung 1996
Minimum Reproductive Salinity0This is a freshwater species.
Maximum Reproductive Salinity3.5for fertilization of <i>D. polymorpha</i> eggs (Fong et al. 1995).
Minimum Duration8From fertilization to settlement (Sprung 1993, temperature not specified)
Maximum Duration33Sprung 1993 (Sprung 1993, temperature not specified)
Minimum Length (mm)10Size at maturity (Ludyanskiy et al. 1993)
Maximum Length (mm)50Ludyanskiy et al. 1993
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate-Warm temperate
Broad Salinity RangeNoneNontidal Limnetic-Oligohaline

General Impacts

Dreissena polymorpha (Zebra Mussel) has been listed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group of the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as one of the '100 worst invasive species.' In North America, it has been the 'poster child' of aquatic invasive species, because of its wide-ranging economic and ecological impacts. In the 1990s, the Zebra Mussel invasion attracted much attention in the media and among the public, spurring the adoption of legislation in the US and Canada to regulate ballast water discharges and other vectors of biological introductions (Vasarhelyi and Thomas 2003). Impacts of Zebra Mussels have been widely reported from European lakes, rivers, and estuaries, and from the Hudson River, Great Lakes, and Mississippi Rivers. While many of the impacts are similar among water-bodies, some systems have shown differing responses to zebra mussel invasion, resulting from ecological and biotic differences (Ludyanskiy et al. 1993; MacIsaac 1996; Karatayev et al. 2002; Minchin et al. 2005; Strayer et al. 2011).

Economic impacts

Zebra Mussels in the Great Lakes were first noticed as a very troublesome invader in 1988-1990, fouling natural gas wells, power plants, waterworks, boats, and docks, exacting substantial costs in cleaning and removal (Kovalak et al. 1993; LePage 1993; Carlton 2008). Subsequently, drastic ecological changes occurred in the lakes, with mixed costs and benefits for fisheries and recreation, including greatly increased water clarity, changes in food webs, adversely affecting some fish species and benefiting others, increased growth of submerged vegetation, dead mussels and shells washing up on shore, blooms of toxic 'blue-green' algae, etc. (Ludyanskiy et al. 1993; MacIsaac 1996; Limburg et al. 2010). Colautti et al. (2006) estimated the costs of Zebra Mussels to power plants in Canada to be $CAN 6-7 million per year. Lovell et al. (2006) present a set of greatly diverging estimates for the economic impacts of Zebra Mussels from $83 million to $3 billion per year, depending on the time period, and what costs are included. These estimates are largely based on costs to power plants and water filtration plants. Estimating aesthetic and recreational costs and benefits is more difficult, since these depend heavily on perceptions (Lovell et al. 2006; Limburg et al. 2010).

Industry- The earliest observations of Zebra Mussels in the Great Lakes involved fouling of natural gas wells in Lake Erie and Ontario, causing damage to the wellheads by 1990 (Carlton 2008). Zebra Mussels have long been recognized as a problem for power plants and other systems requiring large-scale water use in Eastern European waters, where large reservoirs provide an especially favorable habitat (Ludyanskiy et al. 1993; Minchin et al. 2005). In the Great Lakes, D. polymorpha were observed in the 10 power plants of the Detroit Edison system in 1988. Extensive fouling first occurred in the Monroe, MI plant, at the western end of Lake Erie in the summer of 1989, requiring mechanical cleaning and the use of chlorination, costing ~$600,000 in 1989-1991. While the Monroe plant was most heavily impacted, similar problems occurred throughout the Detroit Edison system (Kovalak et al. 1992). Fouling of intakes varied greatly with the size of the intake and the water flow. Fouling was less extensive at plants that used less cooling water (Kovalak et al. 1992), while very high flow velocities can discourage settlement (MacIsaac 1996). In the tidal fresh Hudson River, fouling of power plants has required the use of various biocides, at a cost ranging from $100,000 to $1 million per year (Strayer 2006).

Health- Zebra Mussel fouling has had adverse impacts on municipal water supplies which depend on filtration of water from lakes and rivers. Water filtration plants on Lake St. Clair (Windsor, Ontario), Lake Erie (Monroe, MI), and the Hudson River had major disruptions of water supplies, and have had large expenditures on water cleaning and chlorination in order to maintain water flow, and control unpleasant tastes and odors (LePage 1993; Colautti et al. 2006; Strayer 2006). A unique health impact is an increase in cuts on the feet of people bathing and wading, due to shells in shallow water and on beaches. These lacerations may be prone to bacterial infections, especially in the vicinity of sewage discharges (Minchin et al. 2005).

Shipping and boating- Settlement of Zebra Mussels in Europe, the Great Lakes, and the Hudson River has affected recreational boats, docks, and navigational buoys (MacIsaac 1996; Minchin et al. 2005; Strayer 2006). One study found that increased cleaning, painting, maintenance, and insurance can cost recreational boat owners on Lake Eire about $600 per boat, but this was based on a small sample size (Vilaplana and Hushak 1994, cited by Lovell et al. 2006).

Aesthetic- The invasion and development of Zebra Mussel populations has had contrasting impacts to people's enjoyment of lakes and rivers. The vast biomass of the mussels, and their huge filtering capacity has increased clarity of the water, increasing its attractiveness, but at the same time has resulted in increased growth of macrophytes (often perceived as 'weeds' by fishermen and boaters), filamentous algae, and in some bodies of water, promoted the growth of large colonies of the cyanobacterium ('blue-green alga') Microcystis sp., which are too large for the mussels to filter (Vanderploeg et al. 2001; Limburg et al. 2010). On Lake Ontario, the majority of homeowners surveyed considered that water quality had improved, and that this contributed to an increase in property values, but others noted problems with algal blooms, and perceived declines in fisheries (Limburg et al. 2010). In addition, when mussels die and are dislodged by storms, the dead animals and their shells create unpleasant odors, and can make walking on beaches unpleasant (Minchin et al. 2005; Limburg et al. 2010).

Fisheries- Economic impacts of the Zebra Mussel on commercial and sport fisheries are difficult to determine, because of the complexity of food webs, and the ability of many fishes to use alternate prey. In addition, in the Great Lakes, impacts of the Zebra Mussel are difficult to separate from those of the Quagga Mussel, although the latter predominates in the colder and deeper waters of the lakes, while Zebra Mussels are most abundant in shallower and warmer waters. In the Great Lakes, the reduction of phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass could be expected to adversely affect planktivorous adult fishes, and the larvae and juveniles of many other species. Given the depth and size of the Great Lakes, grazing by the Quagga Mussel has probably had the greatest impact on open-water planktivorous fishes (Vanderploeg et al. 2001; Cuhel and Aguilar 2013). At the same time, the recovery and growth of macrophytes and algae in shallow water provides habitat for many littoral species, important to sport fisheries, such as Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens), Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) (Vanderploeg et al. 2001). In the Hudson River, open-water fishes, such as American Shad (Alosa sapidissima), Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), and White Perch (Morone americana) were negatively affected by the Zebra Mussel invasion, while nearshore species, including Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), Redbreast Sunfish (L. auritus), and Smallmouth Bass (M. dolomieu), benefited from increased macrophyte growth (Strayer et al. 2004).

Ecological Impacts

Reports of the ecological impacts of Zebra Mussels from different bodies of water have many common features, including: the establishment of dense populations, increases in water clarity, decreases in the abundance and/or diversity of other macrobenthic species, and habitat changes due to the creation of new structure on the bottom (Strayer et al. 1999; Karatayev 2002; Vanderploeg et al. 2001).

Herbivory- Many of the wide-ranging ecological impacts of Zebra Mussels can be tied to their combined capacity for high rates of filtration, with rapid reproduction and dispersal, creating large biomasses capable of removing large portions of phytoplankton per day. At the peak of its invasion, the Zebra Mussel population filtered the whole volume of the tidal Hudson River in 2 days (Roditi et al. 1996), while in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, the estimated filtering time was 1-5 days (Budd 2001). At the same time, Zebra Mussels do have some ability to select their food, by varying filtration rates, and by rejecting particles such as detritus, inorganic sediment, or less desirable phytoplankton, as pseudofeces (Ludyanskiy et al. 1993; Horgan and Mills 1997; Baker 1998). In many bodies of water, Zebra Mussel invasions often result in dramatic reductions in phytoplankton biomass (measured as chlorophyll a) (Leach 1993; Caraco et al. 1997; Budd 2001).

A notable difference among systems is that some invaded areas, such as Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, develop blooms of large colonies of cyanobacteria (often dominated by Microcystis spp.), too big for mussels to filter, using the nutrients which formerly fueled blooms of edible phytoplankton (Karatyev et al. 2002; Vanderploeg et al. 2001). These blooms are not seen in the Hudson River estuary, where Microcystis is present, but the colonies apparently do not reach an inedible size, and are controlled by Dreissena's grazing (Fernald et al. 2007; Strayer et al. 2008). For reasons which are unclear, Dreissena spp. favor Microcystis blooms in low-nutrient, but not high-nutrient lakes (Raikow et al. 2004).

Predation- Zebra Mussels' strong filtration currents capture small zooplankton, such as rotifers, tintinnids, copepod nauplii, and their own veligers. Reductions in microzooplankton in the presence of mussels were seen in the tidal Hudson River (Pace et al. 1998) and the nontidal St. Lawrence River (Thorp and Casper 2002).

Competition- One of the widespread impacts on native species has been the effect of Zebra Mussel settlement on the larger native freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae. This has been seen in European lakes (Karatyev et al. 2002) and Baltic lagoons (Orlova et al. 2006; Zaiko et al. 2009) in the Hudson River (Strayer and Smith 1996; Strayer et al. 1999), Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River (Schloesser et al. 1996; Ricciardi et al. 1998), and in the Mississippi Basin (Tucker et al. 1993). Fouling can interfere with burrowing, and reduce feeding and growth. This is a particular concern in North America where the diversity of unionids is especially great, and where many species are already threatened by pollution and disturbance of streams and lakes (Schloesser et al. 1996; Ricciardi et al. 1998). At least one species of native mussel (Amblema plicata) in Lake Erie was able to eliminate fouling by Zebra Mussels by burrowing in mud (Nichols and Wilcox 1997). In the Hudson River, there was a sharp decline in native unionid mussels and in pea-clams (Sphaeriidae) with the onset of the Zebra Mussel invasion. The decline in the pea-clams, which are too small to be fouled, suggests that competition for food, and reduction of the phytoplankton biomass was the major mechanism of decline (Strayer and Smith 1996; Strayer et al. 1999). In later years, unionid mussels and sphaeriid clams showed some recovery, but the mechanism for this was not clear (Strayer and Malcolm 2006). During the invasion, a decline was also seen in two groups of filter-feeding midge larvae, the attached case-building tanytarsines, and the planktonic Chaoborus spp. (Strayer and Smith 2001).

Habitat Change- Zebra Mussel invasions have dramatically altered habitats in two major ways. First, by attaching themselves to substrates they alter the structure and complexity of the benthos and second, through intense filtration they change the properties of whole water bodies by removing phytoplankton and other particles from the water column, and depositing them in the sediment. As a result, light penetration often becomes greatly increased, and is accompanied by the growth of vascular macrophytes and filamentous algae, increasing the amount of shelter for small invertebrates and fishes. Increased light penetration has resulted in an increase in shallow-water macrophytes (Griffiths 1993; Leach 1993; Caraco et al. 1997; Budd 2001; Strayer et al. 1999; Strayer and Smith 2001; Strayer et al. 2011). The increase in macrophytes in the littoral zones of the Great Lakes and the Hudson River has favored shallow-water invertebrates and fishes (Strayer et al. 1998; Strayer and Smith 2001; Strayer et al. 2004).

Zebra Mussels alter hard substrates by increasing their complexity and by depositing pseudofeces, increasing sedimentation (Daunys et al. 2006; Zaiko et al. 2009). On soft substrates, the transformation can be dramatic, adding a three-dimensional aspect to a flat habitat, providing shelter for prey, and stabilizing the sediment (Berkman et al. 1998; Beekey et al. 2004a). The cryptogenic amphipod Gammarus fasciatus and the introduced Echinogammarus ischnus both used Zebra Mussel beds as shelter, with about equal frequency (Palmer and Ricciardi 2005; Kang et al. 2007). Again, deposition of pseudofeces increases the organic content of the sediment, and may increase the diversity of macroinvertebrates (Beekey et al. 2004a). However, in the Hudson River, a negative effect was seen on benthic macroinvertebrates in deeper water, attributed to the overall decrease in phytoplankton sinking to the bottom (Strayer et al. 1998; Strayer and Smith 2001).

Food/Prey- The huge biomasses developed by Zebra Mussel populations present a large food resource for predators capable of cracking the mussel shells. In the Hudson River estuary, Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus) are significant predators of Zebra Mussels (Boles and Lipcius 1997; Carlsson et al. 2011). Increased mortality due to predation seems to have played a major part in the decline of Zebra Mussels in the Hudson River, but effects on the abundance of Blue Crabs or other predators are unknown (Strayer et al. 2011). The Rusty Crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) sharply reduced Zebra Mussel abundance in a Minnesota stream (Christiana Creek) (Perry et al. 2000), but had negligible impact on Zebra Mussel populations in nearshore rocky habitat in Lake Erie (Stewart et al. 1998). Round Gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) also of Ponto-Caspian origin, feed extensively on young Zebra Mussels (Ray and Corkum 1997). In the Great Lakes and Baltic Sea, they are the only small forage fish which preys heavily on Zebra and Quagga Mussels, so the invasions of these species are linked (Kornis et al. 2012). In the Great Lakes, Zebra and Quagga Mussels have become major prey for Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), an important fisheries species, as well as forage for large game fishes (Cuhel and Agular 2013). Other fishes, such as Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Redear Sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) do feed on Zebra Mussels, but consume a wide variety of other prey, so the effect on their populations is probably small (French and Morgan 1995; Tucker et al. 1996). Large flocks of diving ducks (mostly Greater and Lesser Scaup, Athya marila and A. affinis) have been found to be feeding on Zebra Mussels in the Great Lakes, but effects on these migratory bird populations are unknown (Hamilton et al. 1994).

Trophic Cascade- The invasion of Zebra Mussels has caused dramatic changes throughout the food webs of the Great Lakes, the fresh tidal Hudson River, and to a lesser extent, Baltic lagoons. These effects are not just on their food (phytoplankton, microzooplankton) or their direct predators, but also on indirectly connected components, such as macrophytes and filamentous algae, top-predator fishes, inorganic nutrients, and light penetration (Evans et al. 2011; Strayer et al. 2011; Cuhel and Aguilar 2013). In these systems, dreissenid mussels remove large quantities of phytoplankton from the water, and excrete their accumulated nitrogen and phosphorus into the water, where it can be utilized by filamentous algae, macrophytes, and inedible phytoplankton, such as Microcystis sp. (Raikow et al. 2004; Conroy and Culver 2005; Strayer et al. 2011). The intense filtration pressure of Zebra mussels changes the distribution of light energy, from absorbance in the water column by phytoplankton, to penetration on the bottom, promoting the colonization (or re-colonization, in many eutrophic bodies of water) of macrophytes and filamentous algae (Budd 2001; Strayer et al. 2011). The macrophyte and algal communities in turn provide food and shelter for invertebrates, and support smaller forage fishes (e.g. killifishes, sunfishes) and larger predators, such as Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) (Vanderploeg et al. 2001; Strayer et al. 2004). These changes in the food web are complex- in some respects they have reduced the impact of human-caused eutrophication, and led to a partial oligotrophication of these systems (Evans et al. 2011; Cuhel and Aguilar 2013). At the same time, the dreissenid invasions may have reduced the resiliency of ecosystems, by creating a large biomass component, subject to limited predation, which slows the transfer of energy between trophic levels (Conroy and Culver 2005). These changes in food web dynamics may have to be incorporated into regional policies of nutrient management (Evans et al. 2011).


Regional Impacts

B-IXNoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Fouling of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) by Zebra Mussels occurred in the inner Gulf of Finland, but at lower frequency than seen in North America (Orlova et al. 2006). Impacts on benthic communities were characterized as 'moderate' (Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-IXNoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Zebra Mussels were reported to be increasing water clarity and promoting the growth of benthic algae (Orlova et al. 2006). The scale of these habitat impacts was characterized as moderate (Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-IXNoneEcological ImpactTrophic Cascade
In the inner Gulf of Finland, Zebra Mussels deposited large quantities of excreted nutrients in sediments, providing nutrition for an increased abundance of deposit-feeding benthos, and promoting the growth of macroalgae (Cladophora sp.) (Orlova et al. 2006). The scale of these impacts on ecosystem function was reported as 'moderate' (Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-VNoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Zebra Mussels were considered to have moderate community impacts in the Szczecin Lagoon and Oder/Odra estuary (Zaiko et al. 2011)
B-VNoneEcological ImpactHerbivory
Zebra Mussels were considered to have moderate ecosystem impacts, in the Szczecin Lagoon and Oder/Odra estuary, assumed to include suspension-feeding (Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-VIIINoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Moderate habitat impacts (Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-VIIINoneEcological ImpactTrophic Cascade
Moderate ecosystem impacts (Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-VIINoneEcological ImpactCompetition
In the Curonian Lagoon, Zebra Mussels contributed up to 95% of total benthic community biomass and fouled native unionid mussels (Zaiko et al. 2009). Dreissena polymorpha was also a biomass dominant in fresher portions of the Vistula Lagoon, Poland (Ezhova et al. 2005). It was considered to have strong community impacts in the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons (Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-VIINoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
In the Curonian Lagoon, Zebra Mussel shell deposits and living beds had higher benthic invertebrate biomass and species richness than bare sediment. The effect of living mussels was greater than that of dead shells (Zaiko et al. 2009). Zebra mussels were considered to have strong habitat impacts (Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-VIINoneEcological ImpactTrophic Cascade
Zebra Mussels were considered to have moderate ecosystem impacts in the Curonian Lagoon. Data were not available for an assessment in the Vistula Lagoon (Zaiko et al. 2011).
L123_CDA_L123 (St. Lawrence River)Ecological ImpactPredation
In Robinson Bay, off the St. Lawrence River, near Massena NY, in mesh enclosures containing Dreissena polymorpha, the abundance of the rotifer Polyarthra sp. declined drastically, indicating predation on this and other microzooplankton. Enclosures with the native mussel Elliptio complanata showed no change in rotifer abundance. Chlorophyll levels in the treatments did not differ, indicating that the effect was due to predation (Thorp and Casper 2002).
L123_CDA_L123 (St. Lawrence River)Ecological ImpactTrophic Cascade
In Robinson Bay, of the St. Lawrence River, near Massena NY, in mesh enclosures containing Dreissena polymorpha, abundances of the copepods Eurytemora carolleeae (reported as E. affinis) increased dramatically, presumably due to reduction of competition from rotifers (Thorp and Casper 2002).
GL-IILake ErieEconomic ImpactIndustry
Fouling of natural gas wellheads by zebra mussels, off Ontario, in Lake Erie, caused maintenance problems by 1990 (Carlton 2008). Zebra Mussels caused extensive fouling of the Detroit Edison's Monroe, MI coal-fired power plant at the western end of Lake Erie. Mussels covered the intake surfaces, blocked the trash bars, and fouled the condenser tubes. The fouled parts of the plants were cleaned with high-pressure water at a cost of $25,000-35,000 for each cleaning. Service water lines for fire-protection systems were also fouled, and cleared with chlorination, but regular use is limited by environmental concerns (Kovalak et al. 1993).
L098_CDA_L098 (Black-Rocky)Economic ImpactIndustry
Fouling of natural gas wellheads by zebra mussels, off Ontario, caused maintenance problems by 1990 (Carlton 2008).
L099_CDA_L099 (Cuyahoga)Economic ImpactIndustry
Fouling of natural gas wellheads by zebra mussels, off Ontario, caused maintenance problems by 1990 (Carlton 2008).
L106_CDA_L106 (Niagara)Economic ImpactIndustry
Fouling of natural gas wellheads by zebra mussels, off Ontario, caused maintenance problems by 1990 (Carlton 2008).
L105_CDA_L105 (Buffalo-Eighteenmile)Economic ImpactIndustry
Fouling of natural gas wellheads by zebra mussels, off Ontario, caused maintenance problems by 1990 (Carlton 2008).
L103_CDA_L103 (Chautauqua-Connaut)Economic ImpactIndustry
Fouling of natural gas wellheads by zebra mussels, off Ontario, caused maintenance problems by 1990 (Carlton 2008).
M060Hudson River/Raritan BayEcological ImpactHerbivory
The Zebra Mussel invasion in the tidal fresh Hudson River resulted in an 85% decline in average phytoplankton biomass from 1987-1991 to 1993-1994. Light availability increased, as did phosphorus concentrations, while some planktonic grazers decreased. Flow characteristics of the river had not changed, supporting the hypothesis that grazing by the mussels was responsible (Caraco et al. 1997; Strayer et al. 1999). Laboratory grazing studies indicated that the biomass of zebra mussels could filter the tidal freshwater Hudson River in about two days (Roditi et al. 1996).The filtration rate has declined about 82% from its highest peak, in 1996, apparently due to increased mortality of mussels, and decreasing body size and biomass (Strayer et al. 2011). The toxic bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis sp. was positively correlated with Zebra Mussel filtration rate, which is at odds with its behavior in other eutrophic systems, where high rates of Zebra Mussel grazing and nutrient release have promoted blooms of large, inedible colonies. Reasons for the absence of these cyanobacterial blooms in the Hudson River are not clear (Fernald et al. 2007).
M060Hudson River/Raritan BayEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Grazing by the Zebra Mussels resulted in a 39% decrease in the light extinction coefficient, which indicates a sharp increase in light penetration, due to the removal of phytoplankton (Caraco et al. 1997; Strayer et al. 1999). Increased light penetration has resulted in an increase in shallow-water macrophytes (Strayer and Smith 2001; Strayer et al. 2011).
M060Hudson River/Raritan BayEcological ImpactPredation
Filter-feeding by Zebra Mussels in the Hudson River resulted in a sharp decrease in the abundance of ciliates, rotifers, and copepod nauplii, apparently due to direct predation. The total biomass of zooplankton declined by about 70% after the invasion, due in part to predation (Pace et al. 1998).
M060Hudson River/Raritan BayEcological ImpactCompetition
Zebra mussels adversely affected native mussels of the family Unionidae (especially Anodonta implicata and Leptodea ochracea) by settling on them and fouling them. Densities of the native mussels, during the invasion, fell by 56% and numbers of recruits fell by 90% during 1992-1995. A decrease in condition of unionid mussels, and a decline in small sphaeriid (Pisidium spp., Sphaerium spp.) clams, not subject to fouling, suggests that competition for phytoplankton food was also affecting native bivalves (Strayer and Smith 1996; Strayer et al. 1999). Later analyses suggested that declines in recruitment and condition during the early years of the invasion were more closely related to zebra mussel filtration, and thus food competition, rather than fouling. From 2000 to 2005, the decline of native bivalves stopped, and abundances stabilized, even showing some recovery, but the mechanism for this is not clear (Strayer and Malcom 2006).Two groups of filter-feeding midge larvae, tanytarsini midges, and Chaoborus spp. declined during the zebra mussel invasion (Strayer and Smith 2001).
M060Hudson River/Raritan BayEcological ImpactTrophic Cascade
The Zebra Mussel invasion in the Hudson River had wide-ranging effects on the estuary's food web. Effects on macrobenthos were complex. In deep-water samples, the abundance of benthic animals, mostly deposit-feeders, declined, because of the reduction of edible particles reaching the bottom. However, in shallow water, many groups of benthic invertebrates increased in abundance, probably because of increased growth of algae and macrophytes (Strayer et al. 1998; Strayer and Smith 2001). By 2000, populations of most deepwater macrobenthic species had recovered, apparently due to reduced biomass and decreased filtration rates of the Zebra Mussel population. However, shallow-water invertebrates remained at post-invasion levels (Strayer et al. 2011).

The abundances of some fishes appear to have been affected by the mussel invasion. Some open-water species, particularly juveniles of Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and White Perch (Morone americana) decreased during the invasion, while several littoral species increased, including Banded Killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), Redbreast Sunfish (L. auritus), Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and Tessellated Darter (Etheostoma olmstedi). Open-water fishes tended to shift their distribution downriver, while littoral fishes shifted upriver. Reduction in phytoplankton biomass and the planktonic part of the food web is believed to be the major factor in the shift in distribution and abundance of the open-water fishes, while the increase of shallow-water macrophytes and algae, as shelter for fishes and their prey, due to increased light penetration has benefited the littoral fishes (Strayer et al. 2004). Regions of the upper Hudson estuary witn more intense Zebra Mussel grazing had poor condtion and lower gut volume of Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae (Smircich et al. 2017).

The general impact of Zebra mussel grazing has been to strengthen littoral food webs and increase biomasses, while weakening the planktonic and deepwater benthic food webs, and decreasing biomasses there (Strayer et al. 2008; Strayer et al. 2011).
M060Hudson River/Raritan BayEcological ImpactFood/Prey
Field and experimental studies indicate that predation by Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus) causes extensive mortality to Zebra Mussels in the Hudson River estuary (Boles and Lipcius 1997; Carlsson et al. 2011). Increased mortality has apparently stabilized the mussel population. However, it is not known if the Zebra Mussel has affected the abundance or distribution of Blue Crabs, or other predators in the Hudson River (Strayer et al. 2011).
L123_CDA_L123 (St. Lawrence River)Ecological ImpactHabitat Change
In Lake Champlain VT-NY, Zebra Mussels have extensively colonized soft sediment. Colonized sediment supported communities with a greater abundance and diversity of benthic invertebrates than adjacent sediments, lacking mussels. Experiments in which mussels were added to uncolonized sediment, or removed from colonized sediment also showed that mussels promoted increased abundance and diversity of macrobenthos (Beekey et al. 2004a). Zebra Mussels also adversely affected the foraging success of 3 benthic fishes and a crayfish, by providing shelter to prey organisms. However, the shelter effect may be offset by the increase in the density of prey (Beekey et al. 2004b). In the St. Lawrence River, near Montreal, both the introduced amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus and the native Gammarus fasciatus used Zebra Mussel colonies as shelter, about equally (Palmer and Ricciardi 2005).
GL-IIILake OntarioEconomic ImpactIndustry
Fouling of natural gas wellheads by zebra mussels, in Lake Ontario, caused maintenance problems by 1990 (Carlton 2008).
L071_CDA_L071 (Saginaw River)Ecological ImpactHerbivory
By 1992-1993, the biomass of Zebra Mussels in inner Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, had a filtering capacity of 0.2-1.2 X the volume of the inner Bay per day. Chlorophyll and suspended solids were greatly reduced, and the decreased reflectivity (increased transparency) of the water was detectable by satellite imagery (Budd et al. 2001). Filtration by Zebra Mussels was selective - mussels ingested small, desirable flagellates, while rejecting large colonies of toxic Microcystis cyanobacteria in Lake Saginaw water (Vanderploeg et al. 2001).
L071_CDA_L071 (Saginaw River)Ecological ImpactHabitat Change
Filtration of the water by Zebra Mussels in inner Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, resulted in greatly increased transparency and light penetration of the water, within 2-3 years after the initial invasion (Budd et al. 2001).
GL-ILakes Huron, Superior and MichiganEcological ImpactHerbivory
By 1992-1993, the biomass of Zebra Mussels in inner Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, had a filtering capacity of 0.2-1.2 X the volume of the inner Bay per day. Chlorophyll and suspended solids were greatly reduced, and the decreased reflectivity (increased transparency) of the water was detectable by satellite imagery (Budd et al. 2001). Filtration by Zebra Mussels was selective- mussels ingested small, desirable flagellates, while rejecting large colonies of toxic Microcystis cyanobacteria in Lake Saginaw water (Vanderploeg et al. 2001).
GL-ILakes Huron, Superior and MichiganEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Filtration of the water by Zebra Mussels in inner Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, resulted in greatly increased transparency and light penetration of the water, within 2-3 years after the initial invasion (Budd et al. 2001). The introduced amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus was strongly associated with dreissenid mussels, mostly D. polymorpha (Kang et al. 2007).
GL-IILake ErieEconomic ImpactHealth
The city of Windsor, Ontario, spent between $CAN 400,000-450,000 on charcoal filtration of water from Lake St. Clair, to control taste and odor problems after the Zebra Mussel invasion (Colautti et al. 2006). A similar case of fouling in the intakes of the Monroe, MI public water-filtration plant reduced the supply of raw water by 20% by the summer of 1989. Several outages and water emergencies in the city of Monroe occurred. Mechanical cleaning and chlorination was required to clear the pipes and maintain water flow. Estimated costs for this episode of fouling were $US 300,000 (LePage 1993).
GL-IILake ErieEcological ImpactTrophic Cascade
Zebra Mussels have profoundly affected the food web and nutrient budget of Lake Erie. Because this lake is shallow, and is surrounded by cities and agricultural land, with high nutrient inputs, the addition of a large biomass of benthic suspension-feeders has had dramatic impacts. Dreissenid mussels remove an estimated 25% of the phytoplankton biomass per day, and excrete large quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus into the water column. The low nitrogen-to-phosporus ratio of the excreted nutrients favors the growth of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, such as blooms formed by Microcystis spp. Conroy and Culver (2005) argue that the mussels slow the transfer of nutrients between trophic levels, decreasing the resilience of the system to disturbances.
GL-IILake ErieEcological ImpactHerbivory
Dreissenid mussels remove an estimated 25% of the phytoplankton biomass per day (Edwards et al., 2004, cited by Conroy and Culver 2005). In the western basin of Lake Erie, average chlorophyll a concentrations declined by 43% from 1988 to 1989, with the onset of the Zebra Mussel invasion (Leach 1993). Filtration by Zebra Mussels was selective- mussels ingested small, desirable flagellates, while rejecting large colonies of toxic Microcystis cyanobacteria in western Lake Erie water (Vanderploeg et al. 2001). Reduction in chlorophyl a and increased light penetration, since the onset of the dreissenid invasions, was also seen in the eastern basin of Lake Erie (North et al. 2012).
B-VIINoneEcological ImpactHerbivory
In the Curonian Lagoon, Lithuania, Dreissena polymorpha is estimated to filter 10-30% of the total suspended particulate material per day, but the overall impact is considered small, because of the short residence time of the lagoon. However, within the mussel bed, the deposition of organic matter is significant, resulting in local enrichment of the benthic community (Daunys et al. 2006).
L084_CDA_L084 (Lake St. Clair)Ecological ImpactHabitat Change
After the invasion of Lake St. Clair, the abundance and diversity of macrobenthos increased. Water clarity increased, and macrophytes (Potamogeton sp., Vallisneria americana, and Elodea canadensis), and filamentous algae became abundant (Griffiths 1992).
L084_CDA_L084 (Lake St. Clair)Economic ImpactHealth
The city of Windsor, Ontario, spent between $CAN 400,000–450,000 on charcoal filtration of water from Lake St. Clair, to control taste and odor problems after the Zebra Mussel invasion (Colautti et al. 2006).
GL-IILake ErieEcological ImpactHabitat Change
After the invasion of Lake St. Clair, the abundance and diversity of macrobenthos increased. Water clarity increased, and macrophytes (Potamogeton sp., Vallisneria americana, and Elodea canadensis) and filamentous algae became abundant (Griffiths 1992). In the western basin of Lake Erie, Secchi disk depth (an estimate of transparency) increased by 85% from 1988 to 1989 (Leach 1993). Although the light conditions and substrate of the lakes rocky reefs had been greatly altered, no change was seen in the spawning of Walleye (Sander vitreum), an important commercial and sport fish (Leach 1993). The introduced amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus was strongly associated with dreissenid mussels, mostly D. polymorpha (Kang et al. 2007)
GL-IILake ErieEcological ImpactFood/Prey
Diving ducks of several species (mostly Greater and Lesser Scaup, Athya marila, A. affinis) appeared in large flocks in late fall and early spring at Point Pelee, Ontario in 1991-1992. Caging experiments indicated that they sharply reduced Zebra Mussel abundance, but these effects disappeared in a few months. Ice cover prevented predation in winter (Hamilton et al. 1994). Round Gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) in the Detroit River fed largely on Zebra Mussels. The size and numbers of mussels eaten were proportional to the length of the fish (Ray and Corkum 1997).
L098_CDA_L098 (Black-Rocky)Ecological ImpactFood/Prey
Diving ducks of several species (mostly Greater and Lesser Scaup, Athya marila, A. affinis) appeared in large flocks in late fall and early spring at Point Pelee, Ontario in 1991-1992. Caging experiments indicated that they sharply reduced Zebra Mussel abundance, but these effects disappeared in a few months. Ice cover prevented predation in winter (Hamilton et al. 1994).
GL-IIILake OntarioEcological ImpactHabitat Change
The Zebra Mussel invasion was accompanied by greatly increased transparency in Lake Ontario, along with a great increase in submerged macrophytes and filamentous algae (Limburg et al. 2010). The introduced amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus was strongly associated with dreissenid mussels, mostly D. polymorpha (Kang et al. 2007).
L085_CDA_L085 (Detroit)Economic ImpactIndustry
Zebra Mussels caused extensive fouling of the Detroit Edison's Monroe, MI coal-fired power plant at the western end of Lake Erie. Mussels covered the intake surfaces, blocked the trash bars, and fouled the condenser tubes. The fouled parts of the plant were cleaned with high-pressure water at a cost of $25,000-35,000 for each cleaning. Sevice water lines for fire protection systems were also fouled, and cleared with chlorination, but regular use is limited by environmental concerns (Kovalak et al. 1993).
B-VIIINoneEcological ImpactHerbivory
Rates of feeding and deposition of feces and pseudofeces in the brackish Gulf of Riga were about 1/10 of those of Zebra Mussels in freshwater lakes, so impacts are expected to be smaller (Lauringson et al. 2007). Feeding rates are affected by salinity, windspeed, and chlorophyll concentrations (Oganjan and Lauringson 2014).
L085_CDA_L085 (Detroit)Economic ImpactHealth
Fouling by Zebra Mussels in the intakes of the Monroe MI public water-filtration plant reduced the supply of raw water by 20% by the summer of 1989. Several outages and water emergencies in the city of Monroe occurred. Mechanical cleaning and chlorination was required to clear the pipes and maintain water flow. Estimated costs for this episode of fouling were $300,000 (LePage 1993).
GL-IIILake OntarioEconomic ImpactAesthetic
Limburg et al. (2010) surveyed home and business owners about perceptions of water quality changes in Lake Ontario, caused by zebra mussels. There was a general positive assessment of increased water clarity, but negative perceptions of an increase in filamentous algae (Cladophora). These two changes were perceived to have opposite effects on property values, and businesses associated with recreation (Limburg et al. 2010).
L113_CDA_L113 (Irondequoit-Ninemile)Economic ImpactAesthetic
Limburg et al. (2010) surveyed home and business owners about perceptions of water quality changes in Lake Ontario, caused by zebra mussels. There was a general positive assessment of increased water clarity, but negative perceptions of an increase in filamentous algae (Cladophora). These two changes were perceived to have opposite effects on property values, and businesses associated with recreation (Limburg et al. 2010)
L095_CDA_L095 (Cedar-Portage)Ecological ImpactHerbivory
In the western basin of Lake Erie, average chlorophyll a concentrations declined by 43% from 1988 to 1989, with the onset of the Zebra Mussel invasion (Leach 1993). Filtration by Zebra Mussels was selective- mussels ingested small, desirable flagellates, while rejecting large colonies of toxic Microcystis cyanobacteria in western Lake Erie water (Vanderploeg et al. 2001).
L095_CDA_L095 (Cedar-Portage)Ecological ImpactHabitat Change
Although the light conditions and substrate of the lake's rocky reefs had been greatly altered, no change was seen in the spawning of Walleye (Sander vitreum), an important commercial and sport fish (Leach 1993).
B-IXNoneEcological ImpactHerbivory
In the inner Gulf of Finland, Zebra Mussels were reported to have a high water clearance capacity, although the effect on phytoplankton biomass was not reported (Orlova et al. 2006).
L084_CDA_L084 (Lake St. Clair)Ecological ImpactFood/Prey
Round Gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) in the Detroit River fed largely on Zebra Mussels. The size and numbers of mussels eaten were proportional to the length of the fish (Ray and Corkum 1997).
GL-IILake ErieEcological ImpactCompetition
In the western basin of Lake Erie, Presque Isle Bay, and Lake St. Clair, fouling by Zebra Mussels was reported to cause declines of 89-100% in native Unionid mussels (Schloesser et al. 1996; Ricciardi et al. 1998).
L095_CDA_L095 (Cedar-Portage)Ecological ImpactCompetition
In the western basin of Lake Erie, fouling by Zebra Mussels was reported to cause a complete disappearance of native unionid mussels (Schloesser 1996; Schloesser and Nalepa 1994, cited by Ricciardi et al.1998).
L103_CDA_L103 (Chautauqua-Connaut)Ecological ImpactCompetition
In Presque Isle Bay (PA), fouling of native Unionid mussels by Zebra Mussels is reported to have caused an 89% reduction in their population (Maleski & Masteller, cited by Ricciardi et al.1998).
L084_CDA_L084 (Lake St. Clair)Ecological ImpactCompetition
In Lake St. Clair, fouling of native unionid mussels by Zebra Mussels has caused an estimated 97% decline in abundance (Schloesser et al. 1996; Ricciardi et al.1998).
L123_CDA_L123 (St. Lawrence River)Ecological ImpactCompetition
Fouling by Zebra Mussels is reported to have caused a >90% decline in native unionid mussels in the St. Lawrence River near Montreal (Ricciardi et al. 1998).
B-VNoneEcological ImpactTrophic Cascade
Zebra Mussels were considered to have moderate ecosystem impacts, in the Szczecin Lagoon and Oder/Odra estuary, assumed to include impacts on other trophic levels (Zaiko et al. 2011).
M060Hudson River/Raritan BayEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
Zebra Mussels have caused significant fouling to boats and docks in the Hudson (Strayer 2006).
M060Hudson River/Raritan BayEconomic ImpactIndustry
Zebra Mussels have caused significant fouling to power plants and water treatment plants, in the Hudson River estuary. Fouling problems have required increased inspection and cleaning, and the use of biocides, such as chlorine, potassium permanganate, or polyquaternary ammonium compounds. The cost of these treatments probably varies from $100,000 to $1 million per year (Strayer 2006).
L105_CDA_L105 (Buffalo-Eighteenmile)Ecological ImpactHerbivory
Reduction in chlorophyl a and increased light penetration, since the onset of the dreissenid invasions, was also seen in the eastern basin of Lake Erie (North et al. 2012).
L103_CDA_L103 (Chautauqua-Connaut)Ecological ImpactHerbivory
Reduction in chlorophyl a and increased light penetration, since the onset of the dreissenid invasions, was also seen in the eastern basin of Lake Erie (North et al. 2012).
GL-IILake ErieEcological ImpactParasite/Predator Vector
Dreissena polymorpha was found to be an important host for trematode parasites, including the cosmopolitan Echinoparyphium recurvatum which can cause fatal infections in waterfowl (Karatayev et al. 2012).
L103_CDA_L103 (Chautauqua-Connaut)Ecological ImpactParasite/Predator Vector
Dreissena polymorpha was found to be an important host for trematode parasites, including the cosmopolitan Echinoparyphium recurvatum which can cause fatal infections in waterfowl (Karatayev et al. 2012).
L098_CDA_L098 (Black-Rocky)Ecological ImpactParasitism
Dreissena polymorpha was found to be an important host for trematode parasites, including the cosmopolitan Echinoparyphium recurvatum which can cause fatal infections in waterfowl (Karatayev et al. 2013).
B-VNoneEcological ImpactFood/Prey
Zebra Mussels have become a major food source for most of the European wintering populaiton of a duck, Greater Scaup (Athya marila, a bird of conservation concern, in the Szczecin Lagoon (Marchowski et al. 2015)
GL-ILakes Huron, Superior and MichiganEconomic ImpactsToxic
The invasion of dreissenid mussels into the Great Lakes caused major changes in the foodwebs of the lakes, which also affected the passage of toxic metals and chemical through the foodweb. Mercury inputs to Lake Michigan declined, due to pollution laws enacted in the 1970s. This was reflected in dropping mercury concentrations in the flesh of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from 1978 to the early 1990s. The Zebra-Quagga Mussel invasion led to a drop in Secchi disk depth (increased water clarity) and a decrease in the availability of high-quality pelagic prey, and an increased reliance on benthic prey. Increased light penetration and photodegradation of methylmercury leads to mass-independent fractioning of mercury isotopes, resulting in increased ratios of lighter isotopes (Delta199 Hg) in pelagic prey. As the fish relied more on dreissenid mussels and associated benthic prey (e.g. Round Goby, Neogobius melanostomus, they consumed less pelagic prey, resulting in decreases in a nitrogen isotope (delta15N) and increasing in heavy carbon isotope (lipid-corrected delta13C). This was associated a decrease in Delta199Hg ratios, and increasing ratios of heavier mercury isotopes (Delta202Hg), even as outside inputs decreased. These results suggest that the mussel invasions offset the decrease in mercury inputs by using organic mercury stored in the sediments (Lepak et al. 2019). Increased mercury in Lake Trout results in health risks to people eating the fish.

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
GL-III Lake Ontario 1989 Def Estab
GL-II Lake Erie 1986 Def Estab
GL-I Lakes Huron, Superior and Michigan 1988 Def Estab
MED-IX None 0 Native Estab
MED-X None 0 Native Estab
CASP Caspian Sea 1771 Native Estab
NA-S3 None 1992 Def Estab
B-IX None 1850 Def Estab
B-VIII None 1855 Def Estab
M060 Hudson River/Raritan Bay 1991 Def Estab
B-V None 1824 Def Estab
ARAL Aral Sea 0 Native Extinct
LONEGA Lake Onega 1850 Def Estab
LLODOGA Lake Ladoga 1850 Def Estab
G190 Mississippi River 1993 Def Estab
G200 Barataria Bay 1995 Def Estab
M130 Chesapeake Bay 2008 Def Estab
B-VII None 1850 Def Estab
L123 _CDA_L123 (St. Lawrence River) 1989 Def Estab
L098 _CDA_L098 (Black-Rocky) 1986 Def Estab
L099 _CDA_L099 (Cuyahoga) 1986 Def Estab
L118 _CDA_L118 (Chaumont-Perch) 1992 Native Estab
L106 _CDA_L106 (Niagara) 1986 Def Estab
L105 _CDA_L105 (Buffalo-Eighteenmile) 1986 Def Estab
L103 _CDA_L103 (Chautauqua-Connaut) 1986 Def Estab
L095 _CDA_L095 (Cedar-Portage) 1987 Def Estab
L047 _CDA_L047 (Little Calumet-Galien) 1988 Def Estab
L084 _CDA_L084 (Lake St. Clair) 1988 Def Estab
L085 _CDA_L085 (Detroit) 1988 Def Estab
L096 _CDA_L096 (Sandusky) 1988 Def Estab
L047 _CDA_L047 (Little Calumet-Galien) 1988 Def Estab
L013 _CDA_L013 (St. Louis River) 1989 Def Estab
L101 _CDA_L101 (Grand) 0 Def Estab
L111 _CDA_L111 (Oak Orchard-Twelvemile) 1989 Def Estab
L043 _CDA_L043 (Door-Kewaunee) 1989 Def Estab
L055 _CDA_L055 (Pere Marquette-White) 1991 Def Estab
L051 _CDA_L051 (Black-Macatawa) 1990 Def Estab
L069 _CDA_L069 (Au Gres-Rifle) 1990 Def Estab
L066 _CDA_L066 (Thunder Bay) 1990 Def Estab
L072 _CDA_L072 (Pigeon-Wiscoggin) 1990 Def Estab
L048 _CDA_L048 (St. Joseph) 1990 Def Estab
L054 _CDA_L054 (Muskegon) 1990 Def Estab
L052 _CDA_L052 (Grand River) 0 Def Estab
L113 _CDA_L113 (Irondequoit-Ninemile) 1990 Def Estab
L115 _CDA_L115 (Salmon-Sandy) 1990 Def Estab
L061 _CDA_L061 (St. Marys) 1990 Def Estab
L044 _CDA_L044 (Manitowoc-Sheboygan) 1990 Def Estab
L021 _CDA_L021 (Tahquamenon) 1999 Def Estab
L035 _CDA_L035 (Escanaba) 1999 Def Estab
L016 _CDA_L016 (Black-Presque Isle) 1997 Def Estab
L011 _CDA_L011 (Baptism-Brule) 1993 Def Estab
L042 _CDA_L042 (Fox River) 1991 Def Estab
G210 Terrebonne/Timbalier Bays 1997 Def Estab
G220 Atchafalaya/Vermilion Bays 1995 Def Estab
G230 Mermentau River 2005 Def Estab
L071 _CDA_L071 (Saginaw River) 1990 Def Estab
L045 _CDA_L045 (Milwaukee) 1990 Def Estab
L127 _CDA_L127 (English-Salmon) 1993 Def Estab
LWINNI Lake Winnipeg 2013 Def Estab
B-VI None 0 Def Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude

References

Abbott, R. Tucker (1974) <missing title>, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Pp. <missing location>

Adebayo, Abisola A.; Zhan, Aibin; Bailey, Sarah A.; MacIsaac, Hugh J. (2013) Domestic ships as a potential pathway of nonindigenous species from the Saint Lawrence River to the Great Lakes, Biological Invasions Published online: <missing location>

Aldridge, David C. ; Elliott, Paul; Moggridge, Geoff D. (2004) The recent and rapid spread of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in Great Britain, Biological Conservation 119: 253-261

Allen, Yvonne C.; Thompson, Bruce A.; Ramcharan, Charles W. (1999) Growth and mortality rates of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha , in the Lower Mississippi River, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 56: 748-759

Ashton, Matthew J.; Klauda, Ronald J. (11/21/14) <missing title>, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis MD. Pp. 1-6

Ashton, Matthew J.; Klauda, Ronald J. (2015) The spread of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from the lower Susquehanna River into the upper Chesapeake Bay, USA, BioInvasions Records 4: In press

Associead Press (12/2021) Lummi Nation declares disaster after invasive crab arrives, Seattle Times <missing volume>: <missing location>

Baker, Patrick; Baker, Shirley; Mann, Roger (1994) Potential range of the Zebra Mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, in and near Virginia., In: (Eds.) Zebra Mussels and the Mid-Atlantic: Reports from the Sea Grant Programs of New Jersey, Delaware,Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina.. , College Park. Pp. 5-18

Baker, Shirley M. (1998) Selective feeding and biodeposition by zebra mussels and their relation to changes in phytoplankton .composition and seston load., Journal of Shellfish Research 17(4): 1207-1213

Baldwin, Brad S.; Carpenter, Matthew; Rury; Kristin; Woodward, Erin (2012) Low dissolved ions may limit secondary invasion of inland waters by exotic round gobies and dreissenid mussels in North America, Biological Invasions 14: published online

Barnard, Christine; Frenette, Jean-Jacques; Vincent, Warwick F. (2003) Planktonic invaders of the St. Lawrence estuarine transition zone: environmental factors controlling the distribution of zebra mussel veligers, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 60: 1245-1257

Barnard, Christine; Martineau, Christine; Frenette, Jean-Jacques; Dodson, Julian J.; Vincent, Warwick F. (2006) Trophic position of zebra mussel veligers and their use of dissolved organic carbon, Limnology and Oceanography 51(3): 1473-1484

Bauer, Candice R.; Bobeldyk, Angela M.; Lamberti, Gary A. (2007) Predicting habitat use and trophic interactions of Eurasian ruffe, round gobies, and zebra mussels in nearshore areas of the Great Lakes., Biological Invasions 9: 667-678

Baur, Bruno; Schmidlin, Stephanie (2007) Biological Invasions, 193 Springer, Berlin. Pp. 257-271

Beekey, M. A.; McCabe, D. J.; Marsden, J. E. (2004a) Zebra mussel colonisation of soft sediments facilitates invertebrate communities., Freshwater Biology 49: 535-545

Beekey, McCabe, D. J.; Marsden, J. E. (2004b) Zebra mussels affect benthic predator foraging success and habitat choice on soft sediments., Oecologia 141: 164-170

Beggel, Sebastian; Cerwenka, Alexander F.; Brandner, Joerg; Geist, Juergen (2014) Shell morphological versus genetic identification of quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) and zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), Aquatic Invasions 9: in press

Berkman, Paul Arthur, Haltuch, Melissa A., Tichich, Emily (1998) Zebra mussels invade Lake Erie muds, Nature 393: 28

Bij de Vaate,A.; Jazdzewski, K.; Ketelaars, H.A.M; Gollasch, S.; van der Velde, G. (2002) Geographical patterns in range extension of Ponto-Caspian macroinvertebrate species in Europe., Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 59: 1159-1174

2011 NOBANIS: Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet- <i>Dreissena polymorpha</i>. http://www.nobanis.org/files/factsheets/Dreissena_polymorpha.pdf Database of the European Network on Invasive Alien Species

Blankenship, Karl (1991) Zebra mussel invades Chesapeake Bay, Bay Journal 1(9): 1, 6-7

Blankenship, Karl (2001) Zebra mussels gain toehold in northern fringe of watershed, Bay Journal 11(6): <missing location>

Bodis, E.; Toth, B.; Sousa, R. (2013) Impact of Dreissena fouling on the physiological condition of native and invasive bivalves: interspecific and temporal variations, Biological Invasions published online: <missing location>

Boets, Pieter; Lock, Koen; Goethals, Peter L. M. (2011) Using long-term monitoring to investigate the changes in species composition in the harbour of Ghent (Belgium), Hydrobiologia 663: 155-166

Boles, Larry C.; Lipcius, Romuald N. (1997) Potential for population regulation of the zebra mussel by finfish and the blue crab in North American estuaries, Journal of Shellfish Research 16(1): 179-186

Bonsdorff, Erik (2006) Zoobenthic diversity-gradients in the Baltic Sea: Continuous post-glacial succession in a stressed ecosystem., Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 330: 383-391

Bossenbroek, J. M. (2001) Prediction of long-distance dispersal using gravity models: zebra mussel invasion of inland lakes, Ecological Applications 11(6): 1778-1788

Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Johnson, Ladd E.; Peters, Brett; Lodge, David M. (2007) Forecasting the expansion of zebra mussels in the United States., Conservation Biology 21(3): 800-810

Box, Antonio; Sureda, Antoni; Tauler, Pere; Terrados, Jorge; Marba, Nuria; Pons, Antoni Deudero, Salud (2010) Seasonality of caulerpenyne content in native Caulerpa prolifera and invasive C. taxifolia and C. racemosa/em> var. cylindracea/em> in the western Mediterranean Sea, Botanica Marina 53: 367-375

Brown, Joshua E.; Stepien, Carol A. (2010) Population genetic history of the dreissenid mussel invasions: expansion patterns across North America, Biological Invasions 12: 3687-3710

Budd, Judith W. (2001) Remote sensing of biotic effects: zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) influence on water clarity in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron., Limnology and Oceanography 46(2): 213-223

Burlakova, Lyubov E. and 9 authors (2014) Competitive replacement of invasive congeners may relax impact on native species: interactions among zebra, quagga, and native unionid mussels, PLOS ONE 9(12): e114926.

Cairns, John, Jr.; Bidwell, Joseph R. (1996) Discontinuities in technological and natural systems caused by exotic species, Biodiversity and Conservation 5: 1085-1094

Caraco, Nina F. and 6 authors (1997) Zebra mussel invasion in a large, turbid river: phytoplankton response to increased grazing, Ecology 78(2): 588-602

Carlsson, Nils O. L.; Bustamante, Helen; Strayer, David L.; Pace, Michael L. (2011) Biotic resistance on the increase: native predators structure invasive zebra mussel populations, Freshwater Biology 56: 1630-1637

Carlsson, Nils O. L.; Sarnelle, Orlando; Strayer, David L. (2009) Native predators and exotic prey- an acquired taste?, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(10): 525-532

Carlton, James T. (1992) Introduced marine and estuarine mollusks of North America: An end-of-the-20th-century perspective., Journal of Shellfish Research 11(2): 489-505

Carlton, James T. (1993) Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. Pp. 677-704

Carlton, James T. (1996) Marine bioinvasions: the alteration of marine ecosystems by nonindigenous species., Oceanography 9(1): 36-43

Carlton, James T. (2008) The Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha found in North America in 1986 and 1987, Journal of Great Lakes Research 34: 770-773

Christmas, John F.; Bohn, Richard E.; Webster, Donald W. (1994) Preliminary assessment of the potential for zebra mussel infestation in Maryland., In: (Eds.) Zebra Mussels and the Mid-Atlantic: Reports from the Sea Grant Programs of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. , College Park. Pp. 41-54

Clark, James S. and 16 authors (2001) Ecological Forecasts:an emerging imperative, Science 293: 657-660

Claudi, Renata and 5 authors (2013) Evaluating high pH for control of dreissenid mussels, Management of Biological Invasions 4(2): 101-111

Claudi, Renata; Graves, Albert; Taraborelli, Anna Carolina; Prescott, Robert J.; Mastitsky, Sergey E. (2012) Impact of pH on survival and settlement of dreissenid mussels, Aquatic Invasions 7: in press

Colautti, Robert I.; Bailey,Sarah A. ; v an Overdijk, Colin D.A.; Amundsen, Keri MacIsaac, Hugh J. (2006) Characterised and projected costs of nonindigenous species in Canada., Biological Invasions 8: 45-69

Cole, Jonathan J.; Solomon, Christopher T. (2012) Terrestrial support of zebra mussels and the Hudson River food web: A multi-sotope, Bayesian analysis, Limnology and Oceanography 57(6): 1802-1815

Conroy, Joseph D.; Culver, David A. (2005) Do dreissenid mussels affect Lake Erie ecosystem stability process?, American Midland Naturalist 153: 20-32

Cornelius, Annika; Wagner, Katerina; Buschbaum, Christian B (2021) Prey preferences, consumption rates and predation efects of Asian shore crabs (Hemigrapsus takanoi) in comparison to native shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) in northwestern Europe, Marine Biodiveristy 51(75): Published online

Crooks, Jeffrey A. (2001) Characterizing ecosystem-level consequences of biological invasions., Oikos 97: 153-66

Cuddington, Kim; Hastings, Alan (2004) Invasive engineers, Ecological Modelling 178: 335-347

Cuhel, Russell L.; Aguilar, Carmen (2013) Ecosystem transformations of the Laurentian Great Lake Michigan by nonindigenous biological invaders, Annual Review of Marine Science published online: <missing location>

DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories to Europe) (2009) Handbook of alien species in Europe, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands. Pp. 269-374

Daunys, Darius; Zemlys, Petras; Olenin, Sergej; Zaiko, Anastasija; Ferrarin, Christian (2006) Impact of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha invasion on the budget of suspended material in a shallow lagoon ecosystem., Helgoland Journal of Marine Research 60: 113-120

De Ventura, Lukas; Sarpe, Dirk; Kopp, Kirstin; Jokela, Jukka (2016) Variability in phenotypic tolerance to low oxygen in invasive populations of quagga and zebra mussels, Aquatic Invasions 11: In press

De Ventura, Lukas; Weissert, Nora; Tobias, Robert; Kopp, Kirstin; Jokela, Jukka (2016) Overland transport of recreational boats as a spreading vector of zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, Biological Invasions 18: 1451-1466

Drake, John M.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M. (2004) The potential distribution of zebra mussels in the United States., BioScience 54(10): 931-941

Duggan, Ian; Bailey, Sarah A.; Colautti, Robert I.; Gray, Derek K.; Makarewicz, Joseph C.; MacIsaac, Hugh J. (2003) Biological invasions in Lake Ontario: past, present and future., In: Munawar, M.(Eds.) State of Lake Ontario- Past, present and future.. , Burlington, Ontario. Pp. <missing location>

D’Hont, Anouk; Gittenberger, Adriaan; Hendriks, A. Jan ; Leuven, Rob S. E. W. (2021) Dreissenids’ breaking loose: differential attachment as a possible driver of the dominance shift between two invasive mussel species, Biological Invasions Published online: <missing location>

Enserink, Martin (1999) Biological invaders sweep in., Science 285: 1834-1836

Ericson, Jenny A. (2005) The economic roots of aquatic species invasions., Fisheries 30(5): 30-33

Evans, Mary Anne; Fahnenstiel, Gary; Scavia, Donald (2011) Incidental oligotrophication of North American Great Lakes, Environmental Science and Technology 45(8): 3297-3303

Feist, Sheena M.; Lance, Richard F. (2021) Advanced molecular-based surveillance of quagga and zebra mussels: A review of environmental DNA/RNA (eDNA/eRNA) studies and considerations for future directions, Neobiota 66: 159

Fernald, Sarah H.; Caraco, Nina F.; Cole, Jonathan (2007) Changes in cyanobacterial dominance following the invasion of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha: long-term results from the Hudson River estuary., Estuaries and Coasts 30(1): 163-170

Fitzsimons, J. D.; Leach, J. H.; Nepszy, S. J.; Cairns, V. W. (1995) Impacts of zebra mussels on walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) reproduction in western Lake Erie, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52: 578-586

Folino-Rorem, Nadine; Stoeckel, James; Thorn, Emily; Page, Laura (2006) Effects of artificial filamentous substrate on zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) settlement., Biological Invasions 8: 89-96

Fong, Peter P.; Kyozuka, Keijchiro; Duncan, Jill; Rynowski, Stacy; Mekasha, Daniel,; Ram, Jeffrey L. (1995) The effect of temperature and salinity on spawning and fertilization in the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) from North America, Biological Bulletin 189: 320-329

French, John R. P. III .; Morgan, Michael N. (1995) Preference of redear sunfish on zebra mussels and rams-horn snails, Journal of Freshwater Ecology 10(1): 49-55

Garton, David W., Berg, David J., Stoeckman, Ann M., Haag, Wendell R. (1993) Biology of recent invertebrates invading species in the Great Lakes: the spiny water flea, Bythotrephes cederstroemi, and the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha., In: McKnight, Bill N.(Eds.) Biological Pollution: The Control and Impact of Invasive Exotic Species.. , Indianapolis. Pp. 63-85

Gatlin, Michael R.;Shoup, Daniel E.; Long, James M. (2012) Invasive zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) survive gut passage of migratory fish species: implications for dispersal, Biological Invasions published online: <missing location>

General Accounting Office (2001) <missing title>, <missing publisher>, Washington, DC.. Pp. <missing location>

Griffiths, Ronald W. (1992) Effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on the benthic fauna of Lake St. Clair., In: Nalepa, Thomas F.//Schloesser, Donald W.(Eds.) Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control. , Boca Raton, FL. Pp. 415-437

Gruszka, P. (1999) The river Odra estuary as a gateway for alien species immigration to the Baltic Sea basin., Acta Hydrochemica et Hydrobiologica 27: 374-382

Gurevitch, Jessica; Padilla, Dianna K. (2004) Response to Ricciardi: assessing species invasions as a cause of extinction, Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19(12): 620

Hallstan, Simon; Grandin, Ulf; Goedkoop, Willem (2010) Current and modeled potential distribution of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in Sweden, Biological Invasions 12: 285-296

Halsey, Ashley III (5/24/2009) Find of invasive zebra mussels could spell serious damage, Washington Post <missing volume>: published online

Haltuch, Melissa A.; Berkman, Paul Arthur (2000) Geographic information system (GIS) analysis of ecosystem invasion: Exotic mussel in Lake Erie, Limnology and Oceanography 45(8): 1778-1789

Hamilton, Diana J.; Ankey, C. Davison; Bailey, Robert C. (1994) Predation of zebra mussels by diving ducks: An exclosure study, Ecology 15(2): 521-531

Harper, Scott S. (Sept. 19, 2004) State officials fear zebra mussels could invade from N. Va., Virginian-Pilot <missing volume>: <missing location>

Holopainen, Reetta; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Meier, H. E. Markus; Albertsson, Jan; Gorokhova, Elena; Kotta, Jonne; Viitasalo, Markku (2016) Impacts of changing climate on the non-indigenous invertebrates in the northern Baltic Sea by end of the twenty-first century, Biological Invasions Published online: <missing location>

Horgan, Martin J.; Mills, Edward L. (1997) Clearance rates and filtering activity of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): implications for freshwater lakes, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 54: 249-255

Horvath, Thomas (2008) Economically viable strategy for prevention of invasive species introduction: Case study of Otsego Lake, New York., Aquatic Invasions 3(1): 3-9

Iwanyzki, Stanley; McCauley, Robert W. (1993) Upper lethal temperatures of adult zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)., In: Nalepa, Thomas F. and Schloesser, Donald W.(Eds.) Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control. , Boca Raton, FL. Pp. 667-673

Jablonska-Barna, Izabela; Rychter, Agata; Kruk, Marek (2013) Biocontamination of the western Vistula Lagoon (south-eastern Baltic Sea, Poland), Oceanologia 53(3): 751-763

Jazdzewsi, Krzysztof; Konopacka, Alicja (2002) Invasive aquatic species of Europe: Distribution, impacts, and management., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. Pp. 383-398

Johnson, L. E.; Anthony Ricciardi; Carlton, James T. (2001) Overland dispersal of aquatic invasive species: a risk assessment of transient recreational boating, Ecological Applications 11(6): 1789-1799

Johnson, Ladd E., Padilla, Dianna K. (1996) Geographic spread of exotic species: Ecological lessons and opportunities from the invasion of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, Biological Conservation 78: 23-33

Johnson, Ladd E.; . Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Kraft, Clifford E. (2006) Patterns and pathways in the post-establishment spread of non-indigenous aquatic species: the slowing invasion of North American inland lakes by the zebra mussel., Biological Invasions 8: 475-489

Johnson, Ladd E.; Carlton, James T. (1996) Post-establishment spread in large-scale invasions: dispersal mechanisms of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha., Ecology 77(6): 1686-1690

Jones, Lisa A.; Ricciardi, Anthony (2005) Influence of physicochemical factors on the distribution and biomass of invasive mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis) in the St. Lawrence River., Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 62: 1953-1962

Jones, Lisa A.; Ricciardi, Anthony (2014) The influence of pre-settlement and early post-settlement processes on the adult distribution and relative dominance of two invasive mussel species, Freshwater Biology 59: 1086-1100

Kang, Misun; Ciborowski, Jan J.H.; Johnson, Lucinda B. (2007) The influence of anthropogenic disturbance and environmental suitability on the distribution of the nonindigenous amphipod, Echinogammarus ischnus, at Laurentian Great Lakes coastal margins., Journal of Great Lakes Research 33: 198-210

Karatayev, Alexander Y. and 5 authors (2012) Exotic molluscs in the Great Lakes host epizootically important trematodes, Journal of Shellfish Research 31: 885-894

Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Mastitsky, Sergey E.; Padilla, Dianna K.; Mills, Edward L. (2011) Contrasting rates of spread of two congeners, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, at different spatial scales, Journal of Shellfish Research 30(3): 923-931

Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Mastitsky, Sergey E.; Padilla, Dianna K. (2015) Predicting the spread of aquatic invaders: insight from 200 years of invasion by zebra mussels, Ecological Applications 25(2): 430-440

Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Padilla, Dianna K. (1997) Effects of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) invasion on aquatic communities in eastern Europe, Journal of Shellfish Research 16(1): 187-302

Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Padilla, Dianna K. (2002) Impacts of zebra mussels on aquatic communities and their role as ecosystem engineers, In: Leppakoski, E.; Gollasch, S.; Olenin, S.(Eds.) Invasive aquatic species of Europe: distribution, impacts and management.. , Dordrecht/ Boston/ London. Pp. 433-446

Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Mastitsky, Sergey E.; Padilla, Dianna K.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Hajduk, Marissa M. (2011) Differences in growth and survivorship of zebra and quagga mussels: size matters, Hydrobiologia 668: 183-194

Karatayev, Alexander; Boltovskoy, Demetrio; Padilla, Dianna K.; Burlakova, Lyubova (2007) The invasive bivalves Dreissena polymorpha and Limnoperna fortunei : parallels, contrasts, potential spread and invasion impacts., Journal of Shellfish Research 26: 205-213

Keevin, Thomas M.; Yarbrough Ronald E. (1992) Long-distance disperal of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) attached to hulls of commercial vessels, Journal of Freshwater Ecology 28: 437

Keillor, Phillip (1993) Using filtration and induced infiltration intakes to exclude organsims from water supply systems, Engineering notes- University of Wisconsin Sea Grant 4: 1-14

Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M. (2007) Fecundity as a basis for risk assessment of nonindigenous freshwater molluscs, Conservation Biology 21(1): 191-200

Kelly, Noreen E.; Wantola, Kristina; Weisz, Erika; Yan, Norman D. (2012) Recreational boats as a vector of secondary spread for aquatic invasive species and native crustacean zooplankton, Biological Invasions published online: <missing location>

Kilgour, Bruce W., Mackie, Gerald L., Baker, Mark A., Keppel, Roger (1994) Effects of salinity on the condition and survival of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), Estuaries 17(2): 385-393

12/17/12 More Zebra Mussels found in Upper Chesapeake Bay. http://news.maryland.gov/dnr/2012/12/17/more-zebra-mussels-found-in-upper-chesapeake-bay/

12/4/2013 Current status of Zebra Mussels in Maryland. Resource Assessment Service, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis MD. 5pp.

Kobak, Jaroslaw; Zytkowicz, Jaroslaw (2007) Preferences of invasive Ponto-Caspian and native European gammarids for zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, Bivalvia) shell habitat., Hydrobiologia 589: 43-54

Kolar, Cynthia S.; Fullerton, Aimee H.; Martin, Kristine M.; Lamberti, Gary A. (2002) Interactions among zebra mussel shells, invertebrate prey, and Eurasian Ruffe or yellow perch., Journal of Great Lakes Research 28(4): 664-673

Kornis, M. S.; Mercado-Silva, N.; Vander Zanden, M. J. (2012) Twenty years of invasion: a review of round goby Neogobius melanostomus biology, spread and ecological implications, Journal of Fish Biology 80: 235-285

Kovalak, William P.; Longton, Gary D.; Smithee, Richard D. (1993) Infestation of power plant water systems by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas)., In: Nalepa, Thomas F., and Schloesser, Donald W.(Eds.) Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control.. , Boca Raton, FL. Pp. 359-380

1991 Zebra Mussel Update (Sightings elsewhere). http://www.seagrant.wisc.edu/publications/ZMU/archive/00000263.html

Kraft, Clifford E.and 6 authors (2002) Landscape patterns of an aquatic invader: assessing dispersal extent from spatial distributions, Ecological Applications 12(3): 749-759

1995 Zebra Mussel Update: Now you see them, now you don't.. Web address: http://www.seagrant.wisc.edu/publications/zmu/archive/00000093.html

Lange, Cameron L.; Cap, Roberta K. (1991) Range extension of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the inland waters of New York State, Journal of Shellfish Research 10: 238-239

Lauringson, Velda; Malton, Evely; Kotta, Jonne; Kangur, Kulli; Orav-Kotta, Helen, Kotta, Ilmar. (2007) Environmental factors influencing the biodeposition of the suspension feeding bivalve Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas): Comparison of brackish and freshwater populations., Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 75: 459-467

Laverty, Ciaran; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Dick, Jaimie T.A.; Lucy, Frances E. (2015) Alien aquatics in Europe: assessing the relative environmental and socioeconomic impacts of invasive aquatic macroinvertebrates and other taxa, Management of Biological Invasions 6: In Press

Leach, Joseph H. (1993) Impacts of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on water quality and fish spawnng reefs in western Lake Erie., In: Nalepa, Thomas F. and Schloesser, Donald W.(Eds.) Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control.. , Boca Raton, FL. Pp. 381-397

LePage, Wilfred Laurier (1993) Impacts of Dreissena polymorpha on waterworks operations at Monroe, Michigan: A case history., In: Nalepa, Thomas F., and Schloesser, Donald W.(Eds.) Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control.. , Boca Raton, FL. Pp. 333-358

Leppakoski, Erkki and 5 authors (2002) The Baltic -- a sea of invaders., Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 59: 1175-1188

Leung, Brian; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Lodge, David M. (2006) Boats, pathways, and aquatic biological invasions: estimating dispersal potential with gravity models., Biological Invasions 8: 241-254

Leung, Brian; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M. (2004) Predicting invasions: propagule pressure and the gravity of Allee effects., Ecology 85(6): 1651-1660

Leung, Brian; Lodge, David M.; Finnoff, David; Shogren, Jason F.; Lewis, Mark A.; Lamberti, Gary (2002) An ounce of prevention or a pound of cure: bioeconomic risk analysis of invasive species., Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B 269: 2407-2413

Limburg, Karin E.; Luzadis, Valerie A.; Ramsey, Molly; Schulz, Kimberly L.; Mayer, Christine M. (2010) The good, the bad, and the algae: Perceiving ecosystem services and disservices generated by zebra and quagga mussels, Journal of Great Lakes Research 36: 86-92

Lorenz, Stefan; Pusch, Martin T. (2013) Filtration activity of invasive mussel species under wave disturbance conditions, Biological Invasions Published online: <missing location>

Love, Joy; Savino, Jacqueline F. (1993) Crayfish (Orconectes virilis) predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), Journal of Freshwater Ecology 8(3): 253-259

Lovell, Sabrina J.; Stone, Susan F.; Fernandez, Linda (2006) The economic impacts of aquatic invasive species: A review of the literature., Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 35(1): 195-208

Lucy, Frances (2006) Early life stages of Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel): the importance of long-term datasets in invasion ecology., Aquatic Invasions 1(3): 171-182

Ludyanskiy, Michael L. (1993) Recent introduction of Dreissena and other forms into North America - the Caspian Sea/Black Sea connection., In: Nalepa, Thomas F., and Schloesser, Donald W.(Eds.) Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control.. , Boca Raton, FL. Pp. 699-704

Ludyanskiy, Michael L.; McDonald, Derek; MacNeill, David (1993) Impact of the zebra mussel, a bivalve invader, BioScience 43(8): 533-544

MacIsaac, H. J. (1996) Potential abiotic and biotic impacts of zebra mussels on the inland waters of eastern North America, American Zoologist 36: 287-299

MacIsaac, Hugh J. (1996) Population structure of an introduced species (Dreissena polymorpha) along a wave-swept disturbance gradient, Oecologia 105: 484-492

Mackie, Gerald L. (1993) Biology of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and observations of mussel colonization on unionid bivalves in Lake St. Clair of the Great Lakes., In: Nalepa, Thomas F., and Schloesser, Donald W.(Eds.) Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control.. , Boca Raton, FL. Pp. 153-165

Mackie, Gerald L.; Schloesser, Don W. (1996) Comparative biology of zebra mussels in Europe and North America: An overview, American Zoologist 36: 244-258

Madenjian, Charles P. and 6 authors (2010) Dreissenid mussels are not a "dead end" in Great Lakes food webs, Journal of Great Lakes Research 63(1): 73-77

Marchowski, Dominik; Neubauer, Grzegorz; ?awicki, ?ukasz; Wo?niczka, Adam Wysocki, Dariusz; Guentzel, Sebastian; Jarzemski, Maciej (2015) The importance of non-native prey, the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha, for the declining Greater Scaup Aythya marila: a case study at a key European staging and wintering site, PLOS ONE 10(12): e0145496

Marelli, Dan C.; Gray, Susan (1985b) Comments on the status of recent members of the genus Mytilopsis (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae), Malacological Review 18: 117-122

Marescaux, Jonathan and 5 authors (2015) Sympatric Dreissena species in the Meuse River: towards a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels, Aquatic Invasions 10: In press

Marsden, J. Ellen; Hauser, Michael (2009) Exotic species in Lake Champlain, Journal of Great Lakes Research 35: 250-265

Martel, Andre L.; Baldwin, Brad S.; Dermott, Ronald M.; Lutz, Richard A. (2001) Species and epilimnion/hypolimnion-related differences in size at larval settlement and metamorphosis in Dreissena (Bivalvia), Limnology and Oceanography 46(3): 707-713

Matthews, Milton A.; McMahon, Robert F. (1999) Effects of temperature and temperature acclimation on survival of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) under extreme hypoxia, Journal of Molluscan Studies 65: 317-325

McMahon, Robert F. (1996) Physiological ecology of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, in North America and Europe, American Zoologist 36: 339-363

Meehan, Sara; Lucy, Frances E.; Gruber, Bridget; Rackl, Sarahann (2013) Comparing a microbial biocide and chlorine as zebra mussel control strategies in an Irish drinking water treatment plant, Management of Biological Invasions 4(3): 113-122

Mellina, Eric; Rasmussen, Joseph B. (1994) Occurrence of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the intertidal region of the St. Lawrence Estuary., Journal of Freshwater Ecology 9(1): 81-84

Mihuc, Timothy B.; Battle, Juliann M.; Mihuc, Janet R.; Bryan, C. Fred (1999) Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) seasonal colonization patterns in a sub-tropical floodplain river, Hydrobiologia 392: 121-128

Mills, Edward L.; Leach, Joseph H.; Carlton, James T.; Secor, Carol L. (1993) Exotic species in the Great Lakes: a history of biotic crises and anthropogenic introductions., Journal of Great Lakes Research 19(1): 1-54

Minchin, Dan; Lucy, Frances; Sullivan, Monica (2005) Ireland: a new frontier for the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 24(Suppl. 1): 19-30

Mordukhai-Boltovskoi, Ph. D. (1964) Caspian fauna beyond the Caspian Sea, Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 49(1): 139-170

Mordukhay-Boltovskoi, Ph. D. (1964) Caspian fauna in fresh waters outside the Ponto Caspian basin, Hydrobiologia 13(1-2): 159-164

Morton, B. (1997) Zebra Mussels and Aquatic Nuisance Species, In: (Eds.) . , Chelsea, MI. Pp. <missing location>

Morton, Brian (1992) The Bivalvia: Future directions for research, American Malacological Bulletin 9(2): 107-116

Moser, Fredrika C. (editor) (2002) <missing title>, Maryland Sea Grant, US Environmental Protection Agency, College Park MD; Washington DC. Pp. <missing location>

Muller, Jakob C.; Hidde, Dennis; Seitz, Alfred (2002) Canal construction destroys the barrier between major European invasion lineages of the zebra mussel., Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B 269: 1139-1142

Nakano, Daisuke; Strayer, David L. (2014) Biofouling animals in fresh water: biology, impacts, and ecosystem engineering, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12(3): 167: 175

Nehring, S. (2005) International shipping - A risk for aquatic biodiversity in Germany., Neobiota 6: 125-143.

Neumann, Dietrich; Borcherding, Jost; Jantz, Brigitte (1993) Growth and seasonal reproduction of Dreissena polymorpha in the Rhine River and adjacent waters., In: Nalepa, Thomas F. and Schloesser, Donald W.(Eds.) Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control.. , Boca Raton, FL. Pp. 95-109

New York State Department of Transportation (2012) <missing title>, New York State Department of Transportation, Albany NY. Pp. F1-F87

Nichols, S. J.; Black, M. G. (1994) Identification of larvae: The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis), and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), Canadian Journal of Zoology 72: 406-417

Nichols, S. Jerrine; Wilcox, Douglas A. (1997) Burrowing saves Lake Erie clams, Nature 389: 921

Nichols, Susan Jerrine (1996) Variations in the reproductive cycle of Dreissena polymorpha in Europe, Russia, and North America, American Zoologist 36: 311-325

North, Rebecca L. and 6 authors (2012) Distribution of seston and nutrient concentrations in the eastern basin of Lake Erie pre- and post-dreissenid mussel invasion, Journal of Great Lakes Research 38: 463-476

Occhipinti Ambrogi, Anna (2002) Invasive Aquatic Species in Europe: Distribution, Impacts, and management, Kluwer Academic publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands. Pp. 311-324

Oganjan, Katarina; Lauringson, Velda (2014) Grazing rate of zebra mussel in a shallow eutrophicated bay of the Baltic Sea, Marine Environmental Research 102: 43-50

Ojaveer, Henn; Kotta, Jonne; Pollumae, Arno; Pollupuu, Maria; Jaanus, Andres; Vetemaa, Markus (2011) Alien species in a brackish water temperate ecosystem: Annual-scale dynamics in response to environmental variability, Environmental Research 111: 933-942

Ojaveer, Henn; Leppakoski, Erkki; Olenin, Sergej; Ricciardi, Anthony (2002) Invasive Aquatic Species of Europe> distribution, impacts, and management., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London.. Pp. 412-425

Olenin, Sergej (2002) Black Sea-Baltic invasion corridors, CIESM Workshop Monographs 20: 29/33

Orlova, Marina I.; Panov, Vadim E. P (2004) Establishment of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), in the Neva Estuary (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea): distribution, population structure and possible impact on local unionid bivalves, Hydrobiologia 514: 207-217

Orlova, Marina I.; Telesh, Irena V.; Berezina, Nadezhda A.; Antsulevich, Alexander E.; Maximov, Alexey A.; Litvinchuk, Larissa F. (2006) Effects of nonindigenous species on diversity and community functioning in the eastern Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea)., Helgoland Journal of Marine Research 60: 98-105

Orlova, Marina; Therriaut, Thomas; Antonov, Pavel; Scherbina, Gregory K. (2005) Invasion ecology of quagga mussels: a review of ecological and phylogenetic impacts., Aquatic Ecology 39: 401-418

Oscoz, Javier; Tomás, Pedro; Durán, Concha (2009) Review and new records of non-indigenous freshwater invertebrates in the Ebro River basin (Northeast Spain), Aquatic Invasions 5(3): 263-284

Pace, Michael L.; Findlay, Stuart E. G.; Fischer, David (1993) <missing title>, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. Pp. 103-116

Pace, Michael L.; Findlay, Stuart E. G.; Fischer, David A. (1998) Effects of an invasive bivalve on the zooplankton community of the Hudson River, Freshwater Biology 39: 103-116

Palmer, M.E.; Ricciardi, Anthony (2005) Community interactions affecting the relative abundances of native and invasive amphipods in the St. Lawrence River., Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62: 1111-1118

Pathy, Diane A.; Mackie, Gerald L. (1993) Comparative shell morphology of Dreissena polymorpha, Mytilopsis leucophaeta, the 'quagga' mussel (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) in North America, Canadian Journal of Zoology 71: 1012-1023

Paul, Robert W. (2001) Geographical signatures of Middle Atlantic estuaries: historical layers., Estuaries 24(2): 151-166

Perry, William L.; Lodge, David M.; Lamberti, Gary A. (2000) Crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) jmpacts on Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) recruitment, other macroinvertebrates and algal biomass in a lake-outlet stream, American Midland Naturalist 144: 308-316

Pimentel, David, Lach, Lori, Zuniga, Rodolfo, Morrison, Doug (2000) Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States, BioScience 50(1): 53-65

Puky, Miklós and 5 authors (2008) Invasive algae, plant, bivalve and crustacean species along the Hungarian Danube section: arrival time, colonisation characteristics, relative importance, Proceedings of the IAD Conference 37: 76-81

Radziejewska, Teresa; Fenske, Christiane; Wawrzyniak-Wydrowska, Brygida; Riel, Philip; Wozniczka, Adam; Gruszka, Piotr (2009) The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the benthic community in a coastal Baltic lagoon: another example of enhancement?, Marine Ecology 30((Suppl. 1)): 138-150

Raikow, David F.; Sarnelle, Orlando; Wilson, Alan E.; Hamilton, Stephen K. (2004) Dominance of the noxious cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in low-nutrient lakes is associated with exotic zebra mussels, Limnology and Oceanography 49(2): 482-487

Rajagopal, Sanjeevi and 10 authors (2009) Origin of Spanish invasion by the zebra mussel,Dreissena polymorpha, (Pallas, 1771) revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, Biological Invasions 11: 2147-2159

Ram, Jeffrey L.; Karim, Aos S.; Banno, Fady; Kashian, Donna R. (2012) Invading the invaders: reproductive and other mechanisms mediating the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels, Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 56(1): 21-32

Ray, William J., Corkum, Lynda D. (1997) Predation of zebra mussels by round gobies, Neogobius melanostomus, Environmental Biology of Fishes 50: 267-273

Ricciardi, Anthony (2003) Predicting the impact of an introduced species from its invasion history: an empirical approach applied to zebra mussel invasions., Freshwater Biology 48: 972-981

Ricciardi, Anthony (2004) Assessing species invasions as a curse of extinction., Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19(12): 619

Ricciardi, Anthony, Neves, Richard J., Rasmussen, Joseph B. (1998) Impending extinctions of North Americam freshwater mussels (Unionoida) following the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion, Journal of Animal Ecology 67: 613-619

Ricciardi, Anthony, Serrouya, Robert, Whoriskey, Frederick G. (1995) Aerial exposure tolerance of zebra and quagga mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae): implications for overland dispersal., Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52: 470-477

Ricciardi, Anthony; MacIsaac, Hugh J. (2000) Recent mass invasion of the North American Great Lakes by Ponto-Caspian species., Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15(2): 62-65

Ricciardi, Anthony; Whoriskey, Fred G. (2004) Exotic species replacement: shifting dominance of dreissenid mussels in the Soulanges Canal, upper St. Lawrence River, Canada, Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23(3): 507-514

Riley, Cyrena; Drolet, David; Goldsmit, Hill, Jesica Jaclyn M.; Howland, Kimberly L.; Lavoie, Marie-France; Kenzie, Cynthia H.; Simard, Nathalie; M (2022) Experimental analysis of survival and recovery of ship fouling musseld during transit between marine and freshwaters, Frontiers in Marine Science 8(808007): Published online

Roditi, Hudson A.; Garaco, Nina F. (1996) Filtration of Hudson River water by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), Estuaries 19(4): 824-832

Santagata, Scott and 8 authors. (2008) Concentrated sodium chloride brine solutions as an additiuonal treatment for preventing the introduction of nonindigenous species in the ballast tanks of ships declaring no ballast on board., Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28(2): 346-353

Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L. (1996) Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America, American Zoologist 36: 300-310

Setzler-Hamilton, E. M.; Wright, D. A.; Magee, J. A. (1996) Zebra Mussels and Aquatic Nuisance Species, CRC Press, D'Itri, Frank M.. Pp. 142-153

Simberloff, Daniel (2006) Invasional meltdown 6 years later: important phenomenon, unfortunate metaphor, or both?, Ecology Letters 9: 912-919

Son, Mikhail O. (2007) Native range of the zebra mussel and quagga mussel and new data on their invasions within the Ponto-Caspian Region., Aquatic Invasions 2(3): 174-184

Sousa, Ronaldo; Gutierrez, Jorge L.; Aldridge, David C. (2009) Non-indigenous invasive bivalves as ecosystem engineers., Biological Invasions 10: 2367-2385

Spidle, Adrian P.; Mills, Edward L.; May, Bernie (1995) Limits to tolerance of temperature and salinity in the quagga musel (Dreissena bugensis)) and the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52: 2108-2119

Sprung, Martin (1993) <missing title>, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. Pp. 39-53

Stanczykowska, Anna; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Czarnoleski, Marcin (2010) The Zebra Mussel in Europe, Margraf Publishers, Weikersheim, Netherland. Pp. 119-126

Statzner, Bernhard; Bonada, Nuria; Doledec, Sylvain (2008) Biological attributes discriminating invasive from native European stream macroinvertebrates., Biological Invasions 10: 517-530

Stein, R. A.; Kitchell, J. F.; Knezic, Borivoi (1975) Selective predation by carp (Cyprinus carpio) on benthic molluscs in Skadar Lake, Yugoslavia, Journal of Fish Biology 7(3): 391-399

Stepien, C. A.; Taylor, C. D.; Dabrowska, K. A. (2002) Genetic variability and phylogeographical patterns of a nonoindigenous species invasion: a comparison of exotic vs. native zebra quagga mussel populations., Journal of Evolutionary Biology 15: 314-328

Stewart, Timothy W., Minor, Jeffrey G., Lowe, Rex L. (1998) Experimental analysis of crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) effects in a Dreissena-dominated benthic macroinvertebrate community in western Lake Erie, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55: 1043-1050

Stoeckel, J. A.; Rehmann, C. R.; Schneider, D. W.; Padilla, D. K. (2004) Retention and supply of zebra mussel larvae in a large river system: importance of an upstream lake., Freshwater Biology 49: 919-930

Stoeckel, James A.; Padilla, Dianna K.; Schneider, Daniel W.; Rehmann, Chris R. (2004) Laboratory culture of Dreissena polymorpha larvae: spawning success, adult fecundity, and larval mortality patterns, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 82: 1436-1443

Stoeckmann, Ann (2003) Physiological energetics of Lake Erie dreissenid mussels: a basis for the displacement of Dreissena polymorpha by Dreissena bugensis., Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60: 126-134

Strayer, David (1987) Ecology and zoogeography of the freshwater mollusks of the Hudson River Basin, Malacological Review 20: 1-68

Strayer, David F., Caraco, Nina F., Cole, Jonathan J., Findlay, Stuart, Pace, Michael L. (1999) Transformation of freshwater ecosystems by bivalves: A case study of zebra mussels in the Hudson River, BioScience 49(1): 19-27

Strayer, David L ; Smith, Lane C. (2001) The zoobenthos of the freshwater tidal Hudson River and its response to the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion, Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 139(1): 1-52

Strayer, David L. (1991) Projected distribution of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, in North America, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48: 1389-1395

Strayer, David L. (1999) Effects of alien species on freshwater mollusks in North America, Journal of the North American Benthological Society 18(1): 74-98

Strayer, David L. (2006) The Hudson River estuary, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK. Pp. 296-310

Strayer, David L.; Eviner, Valerie T.; Jeschke, Jonathan M.; Pace, Michael L. (2006) Understanding the long-term effects of species invasions., Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21(11): 645-650

Strayer, David L.; Cid, Nuria; Malcom, Heather M. (2011) Long-term changes in a population of an invasive bivalve and its effects, Biological Invasions 13: 1063-1072

Strayer, David L.; Hattala, Kathryn A.; Kahnle, Andrew W. (2004) Effects of an invasive bivalve Dreissena polymorpha on fish in the Hudson River estuary., Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61: 924-941

Strayer, David L.; Malcolm, Heather. (2006) Effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on native bivalves: the beginning of the end or the end of the beginning?, Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26(1): 111-122

Strayer, David L.; Pace, Michael L. ; Caraco, Nina F.; Cole, Jonathan J.; Findlay, Stuart E. G. (2008) Hydrology and grazing jointly control a large-river food web., Ecology 89(1): 12-18

Strayer, David L.; Smith, Lane C. (1993) Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. Pp. 715-726

Strayer, David L.; Smith, Lane C. (1996) Relationships between zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and unionid clams during the early stages of the zebra mussel invasion of the Hudson River, Freshwater Biology 36: 771-779

Strayer, David L.; Smith, Lane C.; Hunter, Dean C. (1998) Effects of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion on the macrobenthos of the freshwater tidal Hudson River, Canadian Journal of Zoology 76: 419-425

Strayer, David; Powell, Jon; Ambrose,Peter; Smith, Lane C.; Pace, Michael L.; Fischer, David T. (1996) Arrival, spread and early dynamics of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in the Hudson River estuary, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53: 1143-1149

Strayer, David; Smith, Lane C. (2000) Macroinvertebrates of a rocky shore in the freshwater tidal Hudson river., Estuaries 23(3): 359-366

Tamburri, Mario N.; Wasson, Kerstin; Matsuda, Masayasu (2002) Ballast water deoxygenation can prevent aquatic introductions while reducing ship corrosion., Biological Conservation 103: 331-341

Tarnowska, Katarzyna; Daguin-Thiebaut, Claire; Pain-Devin, Sandrine; Viard, Frederique (2013) Nuclear and mitochondrial genetic variability of an old invader, Dreissena polymorpha (Bivalvia), in French river basins, Biological Invasions published online: <missing location>

Therriault, Thomas W.; Docker, Margaret F.; Orlova, Marina I. (2004) Molecular resolution of the family Dreissenidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with emphasis on Ponto-Caspian species, including first report of Mytilopsis leucophaeta in the Black Sea basin., Molecular Biology and Evolution 30: 479-489

Thomson, Candus (11/25/2008) Waterways face threat: Single invasive mussel found., Baltimore Sun <missing volume>: <missing location>

Thomson, Candus (12/9/2008) Zebra mussels found in Md. part of Susquehanna: Alien species found attached to boat in Harford marina., Baltimore Sun <missing volume>: <missing location>

Thorp, James H.; Casper, Andrew F. (2002) Potential effects on zooplankton from species shift in planktivorous mussels: a field experiment in the St Lawrence River., Freshwater Biology 47: 107-119

Trebitz, Anett S. and 5 authors (2010) Status of non-indigenous benthic invertebrates in the Duluth-Superior Harbor and the role of sampling methods in their detection, Journal of Great Lakes Research 36: 747-756

Tucker, John K. (1994) Colonization of unionid bivalves by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, in pool 26 of the Mississippi River, Journal of Freshwater Ecology 9(2): 129-134

Tucker, John K. (1994) Windrow formation of two snails (Families Viviparidae and Pleuroceridae) colonized by the exotic zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, Journal of Freshwater Ecology 9(1): 85-86

Tucker, John K.; Cronin, Fredrick A.; Soergel, Dirk W. (1996) Predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Journal of Freshwater Ecology 10(1): 49-55

Tucker, John K.; Theiling, Charles H.; Blodgett, K. Douglas; Thiel, Pamella A. (1993) Initial occurrences of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) in the upper Mississippi River system, Journal of Freshwater Ecology 8(3): 245-251

Tyus, Harold, Dwyer, William P., Whitmore, Sharon (1993) <missing title>, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, <missing place>. Pp. <missing location>

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2008) <missing title>, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, D.C.. Pp. <missing location>

2003-2015 Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, FL. http://nas.er.usgs.gov

van der Velde G, Paffen, B G P, van, den Brink F W B, bij, de Vaate A, Jenner, H A (1994) Decline of zebra mussel populations in the Rhine: Competition between two mass invaders (Dreissena polymorpha and Corophium curvispinum), Naturwissenschaften 81(1): 32-34

Van Overdijk, Colin D. A.; Grigorovich, Igor A. ; Mabee, Tracy; Ray, William J.; Ciborowski , Jan J. H. Macisaac, Hugh J. (2003) Microhabitat selection by the invasive amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus and native Gammarus fasciatus in laboratory experiments and in Lake Erie, Freshwater Biology 48: 567-578

Vanassche, Jennifer M.; Wong, Wai Hing; Harman, Willard N.; .Albright, Matthew F (2014) Early invasion records of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) in Otsego Lake, New York, BioInvasions Records 3: In press

Vanderploeg, Henry A. and 6 authors (2001) Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) selective filtration promoted toxic Microcystis blooms in Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and Lake Erie, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 58: 1208-1221

Vasarhelyi, Charlotte; Thomas, Vernon G. (2003) Analysis of Canadian and American legislation for controlling exotic species in the Great Lakes., Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 13: 417-427

Verbrugge, Laura N. H.; Schipper, Aafke M.; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Van der Velde, Gerard; Leuven, Rob S. E. W. (2011) Sensitivity of native and non-native mollusc species to changing river water temperature and salinity, Biological Invasions 13: published online

Vincent, Warwick F., Dodson, Julian J. (1999) The St. Lawrence River, Canada-USA: the need for an ecosystem-level understanding of large rivers., Japanese Journal of Limnology 60: 29-50.

Wallentinus, Inger; Nyberg, Cecilia D. (2007) Introduced marine organisms as habitat modifiers., Marine Pollution Bulletin 55: 323-332

Walton, William C. (1996) Occurrence of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the oligohaline Hudson River, New York., Estuaries 19(3): 612-618

Ward, Jessica M.; Ricciardi, Anthony (2007) Impacts of Dreissena invasions on benthic macroinvertebrate communities: a metaanalysis., Diversity and Distributions 13: 155–-65

Wheeler, Timothy (8/26/2015) Zebra mussels found in Gunpowder, Middle rivers, Baltimore Sun <missing volume>: published online

Wheeler, Timothy B. (12/15/2014) Pipe-clogging zebra mussels a growing concern in Maryland, Baltimore Sun <missing volume>: 1

2004 Ecosystem shock: the devastated impacts of invasive species on the Great Lakes food web.. National Wildlife Federation`

Winkler, Gesche; Sirois, Pascal; Johnson, Ladd E.; Dodson, Julian (2006) Invasion of an estuarine transition zone by Dreissena polymorpha veligers had no detectable effect on zooplankton community structure, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62: 578-592

Wright, David A.; Setzler-Hamilton, Eileen M.; Magee, John A.; Kennedy, Victor S.; McInich, Stephen P. (1996) Effect of salinity and temperature on survival and development of young Zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and Quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussels, Estuaries 19(3): 619-628

Yoo, Annie; Lord, Paul; Wong, Wai Hing (2014) Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) monitoring using navigation buoys, Management of Biological Invasions 5: in press

Zaiko, Anastasija; Daunys, Darius; Olenin, Sergej (2009) Habitat engineering by the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) in a boreal coastal lagoon: impact on biodiversity, Helgoland Marine Research 63: 85-94

Zaiko, Anastasija; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Narscius, Aleksas; Olenin, Sergej (2011) Assessment of bioinvasion impacts on a regional scale: a comparative approach, Biological Invasions 13: 1739-1765

Zaiko, Anastasija; Minchin, Dan; Olenin, Sergej (2014) "The day after tomorrow": Anatomy of an ‘r’ strategist aquatic invasion, Aquatic Invasions 9: in press

Zaiko, Anastasija; Olenin, Sergej; Daunys, Darius; Nalepa, Tomas (2007) Vulnerability of benthic habitats to the aquatic invasive species., Biological Invasions 9: 703-714

Zettler, Michael L.; Daunys, Darius (2007) Long-term macrozoobenthos changes in a shallow boreal lagoon: Comparison of a recent biodiversity inventory with historical data., Limnologica 37: 170-185

Zhang, Hongyan; Culver, David A.; Boegman, Leon (2011) Dreissenids in Lake Erie: an algal filter or a fertilizer?, Aquatic Invasions 6(2): 175-194

Zhulidov, A. V. and 9 authors (2009) Invasion history, distribution, and relative abundances of Dreissena bugensis in the Old World: a synthesis of data, Biological Invasions 11: published online