Regional Distribution Map
|Bioregion||Region Name||Year||Invasion Status||Population Status|
|NA-ET3||Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras||1948||Crypto||Estab|
|CAR-VII||Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida||1948||Crypto||Estab|
|CAR-I||Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida||1948||Crypto||Estab|
|NA-ET2||Bay of Fundy to Cape Cod||1948||Crypto||Estab|
|NEP-V||Northern California to Mid Channel Islands||1875||Def||Estab|
|NEP-VI||Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California||1871||Def||Estab|
|NEP-IV||Puget Sound to Northern California||1964||Def||Estab|
|NEP-III||Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound||1961||Def||Estab|
|M040||Long Island Sound||1948||Crypto||Estab|
|S180||St. Johns River||1948||Crypto||Estab|
|G310||Corpus Christi Bay||1948||Crypto||Estab|
|P020||San Diego Bay||1876||Def||Estab|
|P050||San Pedro Bay||1871||Def||Estab|
|P022||_CDA_P022 (San Diego)||1949||Def||Estab|
|P058||_CDA_P058 (San Pedro Channel Islands)||1950||Def||Estab|
|P060||Santa Monica Bay||1969||Def||Estab|
|P090||San Francisco Bay||1875||Def||Estab|
|N180||Cape Cod Bay||1973||Crypto||Estab|
|M060||Hudson River/Raritan Bay||1950||Crypto||Estab|
|S050||Cape Fear River||1948||Crypto||Estab|
|G110||St. Andrew Bay||1949||Crypto||Estab|
|S206||_CDA_S206 (Vero Beach)||1948||Crypto||Estab|
|G170||West Mississippi Sound||1998||Crypto||Estab|
|P093||_CDA_P093 (San Pablo Bay)||1875||Def||Estab|
|P027||_CDA_P027 (Aliso-San Onofre)||2011||Def||Unk|
|PAN_PAC||Panama Pacific Coast||1960||Def||Estab|
|PAN_CAR||Panama Caribbean Coast||1949||Crypto||Estab|
Limnoria tripunctata is a gribble, a small, marine, wood-boring isopod. Limnoria tripunctata has a small, nearly cylindrical body. The cephalon (head region) is compressed and ovoid, with lateral eyes. The cephalon is distinct from the pereion (thoracic region) and freely rotates. Antennas 1 and 2 are equally anterior, with an obvious scale on Antenna 1. The flagellum of second antenna has 4 segments.The left mandible incisor lacks teeth, instead forming a projecting rasp-and-file device. Uropods are greatly reduced, with the exopod much shorter than the endopod, and bearing an apical claw.
The anterior dorsal surface of the pleotelson bears three symmetrically arranged tubercles anteriorly. The lateral and posterior edges are lined with tubercules. Adults are up to 3.4 mm long, white to pink when alive, and yellow when preserved in alcohol. Description based on information from: Menzies 1957; Cookson 1990; Brusca et al. 2007; and Castelló 2011.
Limnoria terebrans (Leach, 1841)
Limnoria tuberculata (Sowinsky, 1884)
Potentially Misidentified Species
Limnoria lignorum has a circumboreal distribution in the northern Atlantic and Pacific, and is presumed to be native throughout this range (Menzies 1957).
Limnoria quadripunctata is probably native to the South Pacific, and has been introduced to Europe, the Azores, Bermuda, the West Coast, and South Africa (Menzies 1957; Wallour 1960; Jones 1963; Mead et al. 2011b).
Limnoria tuberculata has been variously synonymized with or treated as a separate species from L. tripunctata. It was described from the Black Sea by Sowinsky in 1884. Menzies (1972) identified an apparently reproductively isolated population from Chatham, Massachusetts, as this species. Kensley and Schotte (Kensley and Schotte 1987; Kensley and Schotte 1989) have treated this name as the senior synonym of L. tripunctata, but used 'L. tripunctata' in Kensley et al. (1995). However, Cookson (1990) and Castelló (2011), treat L. tuberculata as a separate species. If it is a distinct species, its records are few and scattered, and little is known of its biology.
Invasion HistoryFirst Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1871
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1871
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:
General Invasion History:
Limnoria tripunctata is a cosmopolitan wood-boring isopod, found through most of the warmer waters of the world. This species was lumped with L. lignorum, a cold-water, high-latitude species, until they were separated by Menzies (1957). The native region of L. tripunctata is not clear- it may have an Indo-Pacific origin (Kensley, personal communication; Schotte, personal communication), and is widely distributed there, from South Africa to Japan, Polynesia, and Australia (Wallour 1960; Cookson 1990). It is also widespread on both sides of the Atlantic, from Cape Cod to Argentina, and from Portugal to Ghana (Kensley and Schotte 1987). The history of this species in the Atlantic is uncertain, since it was only recognized in 1952. However, Menzies (1957) identifies records and descriptions of ‘L. lignorum’ from the Southeastern US, as early as 1899, as L. tripunctata. Limnoria tripunctata may have been present in the Atlantic for centuries before its description. We regard it as cryptogenic on both sides of the Atlantic, except around the British Isles, where it seems to be a recent arrival, often associated with thermal effluents (Jones 1963).
North American Invasion History:
Invasion History on the West Coast:
Limnoria tripunctata appears to be definitely introduced on the West Coast of North America, where it was first reported in Los Angeles Harbor, California (CA) in 1871 (Carlton 1979), and San Diego Bay in 1876 (USNM 2286, collected by R. Hemphill, re-identified as L. tripunctata by Menzies, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007). It now ranges from the Panama Canal to Vancouver Island, though it appears to be patchily distributed, in particular estuaries, but not others (Menzies 1952; Wallour 1960; Carlton 1979; Quayle 1992). By 1960, it was known from Balboa, Peru (Wallour 1960); the Gulf of California and Bahia San Quintin, Mexico (Menzies 1957); and San Diego Bay, Mission Bay, La Jolla, Santa Catalina Island, Newport Bay, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbors, and Port Hueneme, California (Menzies 1957; Wallour 1960; Carlton 1979).
In the latter decades of the 20th century, Limnoria tripunctata appears to have extended its range north. It was not found north of San Francisco in 1950s surveys, which included sampling in Coos Bay, Oregon (OR) and Puget Sound, Washington (WA) (Menzies 1957; Wallour 1960). However, it was reported in Coos Bay in 1983 (Carlton 1989); Yaquina Bay, Willapa Bay and the Straits of Georgia in 1964 (Quayle 1992); and Puget Sound in 1998 (Cohen et al. 1998). Limnoria tripunctata in British Columbia is found mainly in oyster-growing areas and semi-enclosed coves, with limited wave action and warmer summer temperatures, but at least five occurrences are known from locations with no history of oyster culture. Wooden boxes used to transport oysters are a likely vector for local distribution of woodborers in British Columbia waters (Quayle 1992).
Invasion History on the Hawaii:
Limnoria tripunctata is considered introduced in Hawaii, where it was first found in 1922 in Pearl and Honolulu Harbors on Oahu, and Nauwili Harbor, Kauai (originally identified as L. lignorum; Carlton and Eldredge 2009). It has also been found on Midway Island (Wallour 1960).
Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:
The native region of Limnoria tripunctata is unknown, because of its late description and distinction from L. lignorum. Limnoria tripunctata is now widespread on the East Coast of North America from Boston Harbor to the Panama Canal, and in South America from Uruguay and Argentina. It is widespread in Europe from La Rochelle, France to Portugal and the Azores, and through the Mediterranean (Bourdillon 1958; Jones 1972, Sen et al. 2010; Borges et al. 2014c; Borges and Costa 2014). In British waters, L. tripunctata appears to be a recent colonist, becoming established in thermal effluents, and colonizing adjacent waters (Jones 1963; Eltringham and Hockley, 1963; Coughlan 1977). In England, it was first found in 1958 in Southampton Water, on the English Channel, and was subsequently found in the Welsh ports of Burry and Swansea on the Irish Sea (Jones 1963). It was reported from Ghana, in the Gulf of Guinea (Cookson 1990), where we consider it cryptogenic. In Cape Town, South Africa, it was first reported from the docks of Table Bay in 2008 (Mead et al. 2011b).
Limnoria tripunctata is widespread in the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific, from China and Japan to Australia and Fiji (Wallour 1960; Nair 1984; Cookson 1990; Huang 2001; US National Museum of Natural History 2015). This gribble is considered nonindigenous in New Zealand, and was first reported in 1964 (McGuire 1964, cited by Cookson 1990; Cranfield et al. 1998).
Limnoria tripunctata has separate sexes, and copulation is internal. Typically, in Limnoria spp., a single pair occupies a boring tunnel, with the female closer to the opening. Brood sizes of L. tripunctata range from 5 to 15 eggs per female. The young are brooded by the female (Becker 1971). Adults and juveniles swarm seasonally, and colonize new pieces of wood. They prefer rough surfaces of relatively soft wood, preferably infected by fungi (Becker 1971).
Limnoria tripunctata inhabits warm-temperate to tropical climates and marine salinities. It tolerates winter temperatures as low as 2C (Menzies 1957) and experimental temperatures as high as 30C (Beckman and Menzies 1960). Reproduction occurs at 15-30C, but development was optimum at 25C (Beckman and Menzies 1960). In experiments, this gribble had good survival at salinities of 36-50 PSU, but poor survival (15-50%) at 18 and 24 PSU (Eltringham 1961; Lum 1981). In Southampton Water, England, migration began in June at about 18C (Eltringham and Hockley 1963). Limnoria tripunctata digests non-cellulosic carbohydrates in wood, together with some cellulose, and excretes lignin in pellets – all without the aid of gut microflora (Becker 1971; Sleeter et al. 1978). Limnoria spp. host a variety of protozoan epibionts and crustacean symbionts. At least one epibiont, the ciliate Mirofolliculina limnoriae slows the feeding, swimming and growth of Limnoria tripunctata, and so can be regarded as an ectoparasite (Delgery et al. 2006).
Wood and associated microbiota
|General Habitat||Coarse Woody Debris|
|General Habitat||Marinas & Docks|
|General Habitat||Grass Bed|
|General Habitat||Vessel Hull|
|Salinity Range||Polyhaline||18-30 PSU|
Tolerances and Life History Parameters
|Minimum Temperature (ºC)||2||Field data (Menzies 1957)|
|Maximum Temperature (ºC)||30||(Beckman and Menzies 1960)|
|Minimum Salinity (‰)||19||Experimental data (Lum 1981).|
|Maximum Salinity (‰)||50||Experimental data (Lum 1981).|
|Minimum Reproductive Temperature||15||Experimental data (Beckman and Menzies 1960)|
|Maximum Reproductive Temperature||30||Highest tested (Beckman and Menzies 1960)|
|Minimum Length (mm)||2||Minimum adult size (Menzies 1957; Cookson 1990)|
|Maximum Length (mm)||4||Minimum adult size (Menzies 1957; Cookson 1990)|
|Broad Temperature Range||Cold temperate-Tropical|
|Broad Salinity Range||Polyhaline-Euhaline|
General ImpactsLimnoria tripunctata, wood-borer, damaging wooden pilings and ship hulls in warm-temperate to tropical marine waters, around the world. It is rare or absent in ports where salinity drops much below 20 PSU (Becker 1971; Lum 1981). Damage to pilings by L. tripunctata has been reported from Boca Grande, Florida (Atwood 1922); Los Angeles (Quayle 1992) and San Francisco Bay, California (Carlton 1979; Cohen and Carlton 1995); British Columbia (Quayle 1992); and England (Jones 1963). Replacement and treatment of pilings, and the effects of toxic compounds, such as creosote and other wood treatments, add to the impacts of Limnoria (Becker 1971).
|In Swansea, Wales and Southhampton Water, England, heated discharges of power plants prolonged the breeding period of Limnoria quadripunctata and tripunctata, increasing damage to wooden docks (Raymont 1976; Coughlan 1977). In Southampton Water, boring by the two Limnoria species removed 6-13% of untreated wooden test blocks (Coughlan 1977).|
|P090||San Francisco Bay||Economic Impact||Shipping/Boating|
|Damage to pilings in Oakland estuary, San Francisco Bay, probably due to this isopod, was first noted in 1873 (Merritt 1875, cited by Carlton 1979).|
|NEP-V||Northern California to Mid Channel Islands||Economic Impact||Shipping/Boating|
|Damage to pilings in Oakland estuary, San Francisco Bay, probably due to this isopod, was first noted in 1873 (Merritt 1875, cited by Carlton 1979).|
|P050||San Pedro Bay||Economic Impact||Shipping/Boating|
|'In Los Angeles, California, this species can reduce the life of a creosote treated piling to about 6 years instead of a possible 40 years in northern waters (Beckman et al. 1957).' (Quayle 1992).|
|NEP-III||Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound||Economic Impact||Shipping/Boating|
|Limnoria spp. were a major source of damage to pilings in British Columbia, but this damage was greatly reduced by coating pilings with creosote (Quayle 1992).|
|G050||Charlotte Harbor||Economic Impact||Shipping/Boating|
|Atwood 1922, photo of damaged piling|
|NEP-VI||Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California||Economic Impact||Shipping/Boating|
|'In Los Angeles, California, this species can reduce the life of a creosote treated piling to about 6 years instead of a possible 40 years in northern waters (Beckman et al. 1957).'|
|Limnoria tripunctata and L. quadripunctata have become important and destructive woodborers in the Tagus estuary, Portugal (Borges et al. 2010).|
ReferencesAtwood, W. G. (1922) Marine borers, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers 48: 1408-1424
Becker, Gunther (1971) On the biology, physiology, and ecology of marine wood-boring crustaceans., In: Gareth Jones, E. B.//Eltringham, S. K.(Eds.) Marine borers, fungi, and fouling organisms of wood.. , Brussels. Pp. 303-326
Beckman, Carolyn; Menzies, Robert (1960) The relationship of reproductive temperature and the geographical range of the marine woodborer Limnoria tripunctata., Biological Bulletin 118: 9-16
Beckmann, Carolyn; Menzies, R. J.; Wakeman, C. M. (1957) The biological aspects of attack on creosoted wood by Limnoria, Corrosion 13: 32-34
Borges, L. M. S. (2013) Biodegradation of wood exposed in the marine environment: Evaluation of the hazard posed by marine wood-borers in fifteen European sites, International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 96: 97-104
Borges, L. M. S.; Valente, A. A.; Palma, P.; Nunes, L. (2010) Changes in the wood boring community in the Tagus Estuary: a case study, Marine Biodiversity Records 3: e41
Borges, Luisa M. S.; Costa, Filipe O. (2014) New records of wood-borers (Bivalvia: Teredinidae) and Isopoda, Limnoriidae) from Sao Miguel, Azores with a discussion of some aspects of their biogeography, Acoreana Supplement 10: 109-116
Borges, Luisa M. S.; Merckelbach, Lucas M.; Cragg, Simon M. (2014c) Biogeography of wood-boring crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae) established in European coastal waters, PLOS ONE 9: e109593
Bourdillon, Andre (1958b) La dissemination des crustaces xylophages Limnoria tripunctata Menzies et Chelura terebrans Philippi, Annee Biologique 34: 437-463
Calcinai, B.; Graziano, M.; Mori, M.; Cerrano, C. (2013) [Demographic structure of a population of Limnoria tripunctata Menzies 1951 (Crustacea, Limnoriidae) of the Ligurian Sea], Biologia Marina Mediterranea 20: 124-125
California Department of Fish and Wildlife (2014) Introduced aquatic species in California bays and harbors, 2011 survey, None , Sacramento CA. Pp. 1-36
Carlton, James T. (1979) History, biogeography, and ecology of the introduced marine and estuarine invertebrates of the Pacific Coast of North America, , Davis. Pp. 1-904
Carlton, James T. (1989) Marine biological invasions on the Pacific coast of North America: The introduced marine and maritime invertebrates, plants, and fish of Coos Bay, Oregon, , . Pp.
Carlton, James T.; Eldredge, Lucius (2009) Marine bioinvasions of Hawaii: The introduced and cryptogenic marine and estuarine animals and plants of the Hawaiian archipelago., Bishop Museum Bulletin in Cultural and Environmental Studies 4: 1-202
Carlton, James T.; Keith, Inti; Ruiz, Gregory M. (2019) Assessing marine bioinvasions in the Galápagos Islands: implications for conservation biology and marine protected areas, Aquatic Invasions 14: 1-20
Castelló, José (2011) The genus Limnoria (Limnoriidae, Isopoda, Crustacea) in Europe, including a key to species, Zootaxa 2968: 1-25
Clark, Scott T.; Robertson, Philip B. (1982) Shallow water marine isopods of Texas., Contributions in Marine Science 25: 45-59
Cohen, Andrew N. and 10 authors (2005) Rapid assessment shore survey for exotic species in San Francisco Bay - May 2004, None , Oakland CA. Pp. None
Cohen, Andrew N. and 12 authors (2002) Project report for the Southern California exotics expedition 2000: a rapid assessment survey of exotic species in sheltered coastal waters., In: None(Eds.) . , Sacramento CA. Pp. 1-23
Cohen, Andrew N. and 22 authors (2001) Washington State exotics expedition 2000: a rapid survey of exotic species in the shallow waters of Elliott Bay, Totten and Eld inlets, and Willapa Bay, None , Olympia. Pp. None
Cohen, Andrew N.; Carlton, James T. (1995) Nonindigenous aquatic species in a United States estuary: a case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta, , Washington DC, Silver Spring MD.. Pp.
Cohen, Andrew; and 16 authors. (1998) Puget Sound expedition: a rapid assessment survey of non-indigenous species in the shallow waters of Puget Sound., , Olympia, Washington. Pp. 1-37
Coles, S. L.; DeFelice, R. C. : Eldredge, L. G. (2002a) Nonindigenous marine species in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai`i, Bishop Museum Technical Report 24: 1-364
Coles, S. L.; DeFelice, R. C.; Eldredge, L. G.; Carlton, J. T. (1999b) Historical and recent introductions of non-indigenous marine species into Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands., Marine Biology 135: 147-158
Cookson, Laura J. (1990) Australasian Species of Limnoriidae (Crustacea: Isopoda), Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 52: 137-262
Coughlan, J. (1977) Marine borers in Southampton Water, Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society 33: 5-15
Cragg, S.M.; Jumel, M.-C.; Al-Horani, F.A.; Hendy, I.W. (2009) The life history characteristics of the wood-boring bivalve Teredo bartschi are suited to the elevated salinity, oligotrophic circulation in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 375: 99-105
Cranfield, H.J.; Gordon, D.P.; Willan, R.C.; Marshall, B.A; Battershill, C.N.; Francis, M.P.; Nelson, W.A.; Glasby, C.J.; Read, G.B. (1998) Adventive marine species in New Zealand., , New Zealand. Pp.
Cruz, Manuel P. (1996) [Contribution to the knowledge of wood-boring organisms of the island of Baltra, Galapabos Archipelago, Ecuador], Acta Oceanografica del Pacifico 8: 75-85
Delgery, C.C.; Cragg, S.M.; Busch, S.; Morgan, E.A. (2006) Effects of the epibiotic heterotrich ciliate Mirofolliculina limnoriae and of moulting on faecal pellet production by the wood-boring isopods, Limnoria tripunctata and Limnoria quadripunctata., Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 334: 165-173
Dessenoix, C. (1964) [On the presence of Limnoria tripunctata at Arcachon], Proces-Verbaux de la Societe Linneenne de Bordeaux 100: 5
Eltringham, S. K. (1961) The effect of salinity on the boring activity and survival of Limnoria (Isopoda)., Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 41: 785-797
Eltringham, S. K. (1965) The respiration of Limnoria relative to salnity., Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 45: 145-152
Eltringham, S. K. (1967) The effects of temperature on the development of Limnoria eggs., Journal of Applied Ecology 4: 521-529
Eltringham, S. K.; Hockley, A. R. (1963) Migration and reproduction of the wood-boring isopod, Limnoria, in Southampton Water., Limnology and Oceanography 6: 467-282
2021 GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility). http://www.gbif.org/what-is-gbif
Haderlie, E. C. (1974) Wood-boring marine animals form the Gulf of Elat, Israel Journal of Zoology 23: 57-59
Huang, Zongguo (Ed.) (2001) Marine species and their distribution in China's Seas., None , Malabar, FL. Pp. None
Jones, Leslie T. (1963) The geographical and vertical distribution of British Limnoria., Journal of Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 43: 589-603
Kensley, Brian, Schotte, Marilyn (1987) New records of isopod crustacea from the Caribbean, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 100: 216-247
Kensley, Brian; Nelson, Walter G.; Schotte, Marilyn (1995) Marine isopod biodiversity of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, Bulletin of Marine Science 57: 136-142
Kensley, Brian; Schotte, Marilyn (1989) Guide to the marine isopod crustaceans of the Caribbean., , Washington, D.C.. Pp.
Lum, Joyce Ann Smith (1981) The distribution of the wood boring isopod Limnoria in Texas estuaries and bays in relation to environmental factors., Dissertation Abstracts International B. Science and Engineering 42: 874
Mead, A.; Carlton, J. T.; Griffiths, C. L. Rius, M. (2011b) Introduced and cryptogenic marine and estuarine species of South Africa, Journal of Natural History 39-40: 2463-2524
Menzies, R. J. (1972) Experimental interbreeding between geographically separated populations of the marine wood-boring isopod Limnoria tripunctata with preliminary indications of hybrid vigor., Marine Biology 17: 149-157
Menzies, R. J.; Beckman, Carolyn (1958) Occurrence of Limnoria tripunctata at the Cape Cod peninsula, Ecology 39: 172
Menzies, Robert J. (1968) Transport of marine life between oceans through the Panama Canal, Nature 220: 802-803
Menzies, Robert J.; Glynn, Peter W. (1968) The common marine custaceans of Puerto Rico, Studies of the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands 27: 1-33
Menzies, Robert James (1951) A new genus and new species of asellote isopod, Caecijaera horvathi, from Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, American Museum Novitates 1542: 1-7
Menzies, Robert James (1957) The marine borer family Limnoriidae (Crustacea, Isopoda). Part I: Northern and Central America: Systematics, distribution, and ecology, Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean 7: 101-200
Miller, R. C. (1966) Distribution of marine wood-boring organisms in the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean, In: Bowman, R. I.(Eds.) Proceedings of the Galapagos International Scientific Projectof 1964.. , Berkeley, California. Pp. 145-148
Nair, N. Balakrishnan (1984) The problem of marine timber destroying organisms along the Indian coast, Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences 93: 203-223
Pillai, N. Krishna (1967) The role of Crustacea in the destruction of submerged timber, Pt. V , . Pp. 1274-1283
Quayle, D. B. (1992) Marine wood borers in British Columbia, Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 115: 1-55
Raymont, J. E. G. (1976) The introduction of new species in habitats of heated effluents, , New York. Pp. 185-199
Ruiz, Gregory M.; Geller, Jonathan (2018) Spatal and temporal analysis of marine invasions in California, Part II: Humboldt Bay, Marina del Re, Port Hueneme, ,and San Francisco Bay, None , Edgewater MD, Moss Landing CA. Pp. None
Schultz, George A. (1978) Four marine isopod crustaceans from St. Catherines Island with a list of other species from Georgia, Georgia Journal of Science 36: 1-17
Sen, Selim; Sivrikaya, Huseyin; Yalcin, Mesut; Bakir, Ahmet Kerem; Öztürk, Bilal (2010) Fouling and boring organisms deteriorating various European and tropical woods on the Turkish coast line, African Journal of Biotechnology 9: 2566-2573
Sleeter, T. D.; Boyle, P. J.; Cundell, A. M.; Mitchell, R. (1978) Relationships between marine microorganisms and the wood-boring isopod Limnoria tripunctata, Marine Biology 45: 329-336
Sleeter, T.D., Coull, B.C. (1973) Invertebrates associated with the marine wood boring isopod, Limnoria tripunctata, Oecologia 13: 97-102
Torres, Gladys (1990) [Presence of Limnoria sp.maarine woodboirers in the prinicipal ports of Ecuador (Crustacea:Isopoda: Flabellifiera)], Acta Oceanografica del Pacifico 6: 68-71
2002-2021 Invertebrate zoology collections database. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/iz/
Wallour, Dorothy Brown (1960) Thirteenth progress report on marine borer activity in test boards operated during 1959, , Duxbury, Massachusetts. Pp. 1-41
Wonham, Marjorie J.; Carlton, James T. (2005) Trends in marine biological invasions at local and regional scales: the Northeast Pacific Ocean as a model system, Biological Invasions 7: 369-392